Tajikistan Tajikistan is a state in Central Asia. Surrounded by China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in the west and north, the territory of Tajikistan is located in the mountainous parts of Asia. Tajiks, Iranian descendants, were under the dominion of the Persians, Alexander the Great and the states established after him, respectively. During the seventh and eighth centuries, the Muslim Arabs conquered the region inhabited by the Tajiks and gave them the name of the region.
The Tajiks who accepted the Muslims in a short time were greatly influenced by the culture and language of the Turks who dominated the region. The Tajiks lived under the rule of the Bukhara Khanate from the 15th century to the mid 18th century. Later on, the Afghans conquering the south and south-west lands of the Ceyhun River accepted the Tacikere rulings.
Most of the Tajik lands were captured by the Russians in the 1860s. The Bukhara Khanate accepted Russia’s rule in 1868. After the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia, a part of the land inhabited by the Jews was attributed to the Soviet Socialist Republic of Turkistan established in April 1918.
The revolutionaries who seized the administration on August 23, 1920 in the Bukhara Khanate which included the big part of today’s Tajikistan land established the Bukhara Soviet People’s Republic in October. Revolutionaries captured Dushanbe and Kulyab in early 1921. The people who rebelled against the new rule were suppressed in a bloody way, but the rebellions continued in Bukhara in East Bukhara until 1931, when the rebellious forces of Abraham Bhikkhus were forced into action.
The Bukhara Soviet People’s Republic and the Tajik lands belonging to the Soviet Socialist Republic of Turkistan in 1924 were merged to form the Tajik Autonomous Republic. It was administratively based on the Soviet Socialist Republic of Uzbekistan.
In 1929 it became one of the 15 republics that brought the Soviet Union to the fountain. The reforms that began in the Soviet Union in 1989 also caused radical changes in Tajikistan. The first multi-party elections were held. The country has entered a new political and economic turnaround. Tajikistan declared its independence in 1991 and joined the Commonwealth of Independent States the same year.
Tajikistan did not declare its independence, and three major opposition groups in the country began to struggle with the leading administrators. These were the pro-western Democratic Party, the Rastohen National Front, who wanted to reintroduce Islamic rule to Tajikistan, and the Islamic Innovation Party, which was forbidden.
As a result of the demonstration, many opposition parties were accepted. The Communist Party was banned and the Islamic Innovation Party became legal status. During the elections, Nabiyev left the presidency. But Nabiyev won the presidential elections held on 24 November 1991. The president of the Old Cinema Workers’ Union, supported by three opposition parties, was found to have been cheated on the elections, Davlat Hudonajov. In Tajikistan, the poorest of the Central Asian republics, the poor economy is causing unrest.
Physical Structure Most of Tajikistan’s land is covered with mountains. More than half of the land is over 3000 meters high. In the north are the western extensions of the Gods Mountains, in the central part are the southern extensions of the same mountains and in the south-east are the glaciers-covered peaks of the Pamir-Alay mountain range. There are wide valleys among the mountains in the south. Because all of your land is located on the zelzele basin, it often lands in the country. The lakes in the country are gathered in the Pamir region and the numbers are very few. It is the Karakul Lake, which is 3960 m high from the biggest sea of the lakes. The waters that originate from the mountains bring forth the arms of the Glacies Derya and Amu Derya rivers.
Amu Derya (Ceyhun) depicts a large part of the south border of the republic. The other important stream is the Zerefşan River which passes through the central part of the republic. Climate Tajikistan has a hard land climate. There is an Astropic climate in the valleys. The summers are very hot and dry. The amount of rainfall is generally low. The average annual precipitation varies from 150 to 250 mm. In the mountainous regions, the winters are very cold and the temperature sometimes drops to -46 ° C. The mountainous regions receive less rainfall than the valleys. The average rainfall is 60-80 mm.
Natural Resources: Tajikistan, rich in underground resources, has iron ore, lead, zinc, antimony, mercury, gold, tin, tungsten, oil, natural gas and coal deposits. Plant cover: Because of the earth’s shape and climate conditions, it has a very rich vegetation cover and animal existence. There are over five thousand species of flowers in the country.
Population and Social Life The population of Tajikistan is 5,358,000 and the population density is 37. The population growth in the country is very high. 62% of the population of Tajikistan belongs to Tajiks, 24% to Uzbeks, 8% to Russians and 6% to other nations. The biggest cities of the country are Dushanbe and Leninabad. Most of the population lives in small villages called wintering. In the majority of wintering areas there are schools, health, shopping and cultural centers. Education: Education is free and obligatory between 7-17 years.
There are many secondary schools with vocational education in the country. The Tajikistan Academy of Sciences was established in 1951 and has 18 institutes. Economy Tajikistan economy has the first agriculture plan. The main agricultural product is cotton. Most of the cotton plantation is done by irrigation. In addition, grape, sesame, wheat, barley, melon, vegetables are grown. Animal husbandry also has an important place in the country’s economy. Small cattle breeding and sericulture are common.
Flower breeding is common. Mining, hydroelectric power generation, petroleum extraction and cotton processing are major industrial enterprises. In addition, food processing machines, chemical materials and carpentry have an important place in the industry. In addition to the light industries such as knitted goods production, silk fabrics and carpets, there are also medium and heavy industries such as power transformers and cables and agricultural tools.