Sierra Leone is a cumhuriet on the coast of West Africa, neighboring Guinea in the north and Liberia in the south and south. Having achieved independence in 1961, Sierra Leone is located between 6 ° 55 ‘and 10 ° north latitudes 10 ° 14’ and 13 ° 37 ‘west longitudes. Europeans first entered the Sierra Leone territory, becoming the Portuguese. In the fifteenth century, they crossed the mountains on the coast for commercialization and went as far as the interior. But they did not set up the settlement center.
In the sixteenth century Europeans began to buy slaves from the country. For three centuries, the country has been struggling with captivity. In 1787, the English settled the Friary town of Friedown, who was empowered to spread Christianity and their own culture. In 1808 the settlement center was converted to a colony of England. In 1896, England took the inner part of Sierra Leone.
In 1924, first of all, those living in the colonial were given the right to choose three representatives in the Legislative Council. In 1951, Britain held a constitution that gave power to the majority party in the colonies and the lands it received. This constitution allowed for a step towards independence. On April 27, 1961, Sierra Leone proclaimed his independence. On April 19, 1971, after a military coup attempted, Sierra Leone became a republic. With the referendum in 1978, a one-party state system was introduced.
The new constitution, which was prepared in the face of the economic depression under the single-party rule and the pressures on the way back to the multi-party system, was accepted by the public in August 1991. In 1992, a temporary government was set up to go to the elections.
But the bloody conflicts that escaped from the civil war in Liberia extended the democracy transition. In April 1992, after the 30 officers were arrested, President Major General Joseph Saidu was forced to flee to Girne. The state is being governed by a state council of eighteen. Internal disturbances still persist (1993).
STATE NAME: Sierra Leone
PRESIDENT: Freetown POPULATION: 4,373,000
AREA: 71.740 km2
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: English
RELIGION: Paganism, Islam, Christianity
Sierra Leone , a surface area of 71,142 km2, has a coast of 340 km in the Atlantic Ocean. Country lands include the islands near the coast, such as the Sherbro, Banana and Turtle islands.
The shore has usually come from mangrove swamps. It takes a plain that extends about 100 km inwards.
In the north and east there is a plateau region with an average elevation of 300 to 600 m. On the plateau there are many peaks exceeding 1800 m in height. The highest point of Sierra Leone , the Bintamini Hill (1948 m), is on the Loma Mountains. More than twelve rivers from Sierra Leone are poured into the Atlantic Ocean. The rivers bring swamps to the marsh wherever they pour into the sea. The main rivers of the country are the Great Scarcies and Little Scarcies in the north, and the Sewa and Moa rivers in the south.
A tropical climate prevails in the country. The annual temperature average is around 26 ° C. Humidity is generally high and precipitation is high on the coast. The average annual rainfall in the Sierra Leone half of the year is about 3000 mm per year in Freetown, more than 5000 mm. In the North, it is less. More than two thirds of the rain falls between June and September.
Most of Sierra Leone remains in West Africa (frequent forest), with bushes and palm trees in the south. In the high and dry deserts in the north there are pastures that allow the cattle to grow. There is a considerable amount of diamond and iron ware in the country. In addition, some bauxite and titanium dioxide are also removed.
Population and Social Life
There are 18 different ethnic groups in Sierra Leone with a population of 3.957.000. The most important of these are Mende, who lives in the south, and Temnedir, who lives in the north. These two ethnic groups make up 60% of the population. Other important groups are Limba, Kon, Koranko, Sherbro, Susu, Loko, Mandingo and Fulanid.
The descendants of the disappeared Africans continue to live in and around the city.
The vast majority of the population live in the villages. The largest city is Freetown, the capital city with a population of 500,000. Other important cities are Bo, Kenema and Makeni. The majority of the people of Sierra Leone (54%) are pagans.
The remaining 40% are Muslims and 6% are Christians. English is the official language of the country. People in the south speak Mende language to a large extent. In the north, the Temna language is mostly used. Education is at a low level and the literacy rate is 15%. There are schools of the state and private institutions. There are two universities and two colleges.
Sierra Leone has a one-party cumhuriyet system. The country is divided into three states and an administrative region containing the city of Freetown. Sierra Leone is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Within the Organization of the African Union, blocs lack political power.
75% of the population working in Sierra Leone is engaged in agriculture. Agricultural products provide a third of the gross national product. The main crops grown in the country are cocoa, coffee, dates, rice and ginger. These plants are exported, except in rice. The commercial economy is largely dependent on the operation of the mysterious riches. Approximately 60% of the stone is made of diamond. Iron ore is the second major export item.
In addition, some amount of bauxite and titanium dioxide has developed. Sierra Leone ; extending and improving roads. The length of the highways is 14,500 km. An inadequate railroad connects the capital city Freetown to Makeni and Pendembu. The iron ore is loaded by a special railway at the gates of Pepel Harbor. The international airport of the country is Lungide.
Freetown is connected here by ferry over the mouth of the wide Rokel River. Although there are many rivers in the country, transportation is not available. Rivers, on the contrary, are largely preventing transportation to the sides. One of the most beautiful natural harbors along the coast of Africa is in Freetown. The marine links the city to the ports of England, Europe, Japan and America.
Sierra Leone exports most of the goods to England. Approximately 30% of imports are made from this country. Japan, USA and European countries are other major countries that have made trade. It makes very few trade with African countries. Sierra leone is very suitable for renting cars and renting cars.