The information available on Senegal ‘s first capital is very small and not certain. For this, it is suitable to start the Senegal monarchy with the Tekrur Kingdom which was established in the central parts of the Senegal River, honored by Muslims in the 11th century. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Portuguese from the Europeans first arrived at the country. Later in the 17th century, the French were under the control of the region.
Surrounded by 12 ° 19 ‘-16 ° 42′ northern latitudes and 11 ° 22’-17 ° 32 ‘west longitudes on the Atlantic coast in West Africa and surrounded by northern Mauritania, Mali in the east, Guinea in the south and Portugal in the west and Atlantic Ocean in the west a state.
For a while, French remained Western Africa. He became independent in 1960. After that, he entered the democratic voyage under the influence of France. Léopold Senghor, President of the Progressive Sénégalaise Union, became the first president of the country. In 1963 a revolutionary attempt was overtaken. In 1968 there were disputes with workers. Prime Minister Andou became president after President Abdou Senghor’s retirement in 1981. In 1988, he continued his presidency by proclaiming the extraordinary state.
In 1982 a joint federation with Gambia was established. In this federation, the countries protected their independence and merely joined defense and financial matters. This unity broke down in September 1989 due to subsequent disagreements. The government has made great strides towards coming from the top of internal and external turmoil dragging the country into instability. On April 8, 1991, President Abdou brought Habib Thiam to the prime minister. Abdou was elected president again in 1993 elections.
Senegal has a surface area of approximately 197,000 km2. Independent Gambia The province is surrounded by Senegal lands along the Gambi River, and its southern part, the Casamance region, is largely separated from other territories. The Gambia has entered the country about 320 km. Most of the stream is wavy, with an average of around 200 m.
In the foothills of the Fouta Djallon Mountains in the south-east, the altitude is about 500 m high and these mountains are the highest places in the country. The region of Senegambia is cut off by four rivers pouring into the Atlantic. Senegal, Saloum, Casamance and Gambia rivers. The Senegal River constitutes the northern borders of the country and is the longest river in the country. The western coast of the country is worn by the winds, including the strip is partly swampy. Verde Burne is located in the hilly and rocky part of the ocean. The rest of it is half deserted.
Senegal is divided into three regions with three different plant coverings, considering the amounts of precipitation; Sahelian, Sudanik and Casamance regions.Shehelian region has an average rainfall of 350 mm. The area is covered with coarse weeds, thorny bushes and acacia bushes.
The southern Sudanic region receives about 900 mm of rainfall. Here the vegetation is thicker and more. Generally, silk-cotton and baobab trees are more numerous and acacia bushes are bigger. In the Casamance region, precipitation ranges from about 900 to 1500 mm. The southern part of the country is covered with swamps and tropical forests in places.
The non-forest parts are greenery and abundant rainfall. Verde Burnu is a partly semi-collared and partly rocky and hilly area. The shoreline is typically muddy and covered with tropical mangrove forests. The climate of Senegal offers some contrasts. The coast and especially the northern parts of Dakar are open to sea breezes and have a sweet dessert.
In January, the temperature average is around 23 ° C. As we go north, the temperature suddenly increases as we approach the Great Sahara. In the south of Casamance, the humidity is high due to the coastal winds. There are two distinct periods in the country, markedly dry and rusty. The lunar season is more visible in the Sahelian region and lasts until the planting of the draft. Rustic seasons prevail, from the Sudanic region to the Mayan plantations and Casamance to the Mayan plants.
The four distinct regions of the Senegal, Saloum, Casamance and Gambia rivers, which bring life and vitality to the periphery of Senegal, are covered by various plant coverings. There are tropical mangrove forests on the coast, silk and baobab trees and acacia shrubs in the Sudanic region. There are not many wild animals in the country. More cattle, sheep and goats are grown than pets.
Population and Social Life
It is worth about 7.400.000 people. The population density is up to 38 people per square kilometer. The annual average population increase is 2.9%. Most of the population live in cities and about 10% are in the capital city Dakar.
Other major cities of the country include: Kaolack, Thiéc, Rufisque, St. Louis.Senegal has a mixed ethnic structure and has formed from many groups, large and small. Volof of 37%, Serer of 18%, Peul of 17%, Diana of 9% and Mandingolar of 9%. The remaining 10% are many small ethnic groups.
The Volafans constitute the majority of the population and often deal with the production of peanuts. The other name of the Peullar who came from the line of Tekrur Kingdom is Fulaniler and they live nomadic life. The Diolas living around Casamance are of Berber origin. Serer and Mandingolar are engaged in farming. Almost 95% of the population is Muslim. There are also some Christians. The majority of the groups, including the Serer and Diora tribes, were honored by Islam towards the end of the nineteenth century.
The official language of the country is French. Because it has been under French printing and hygiene for a long time, it is common in France. In addition, each tribe has its own native language. The Volof, Fulani and Mandingo languages are spoken a bit more. The reading-writing rate is low and is around 10%. Nearly 65% of young people go to school. Teaching language and model is French and French model. There is higher education. 2000 native and 2000 foreign students study at Dakar University.
Senegal is based on the presidential system of the Republic. Since 1978, democratic multi-party government has been adopted. The first president of the country is Léopold Senhor, who has been the leader of the country for many years. Its government is the prime minister and the ministerial council headed by him. With the constitution adopted on September 20, 1991, the President is elected by a people in seven years. It can serve up to two semesters. Senegal is statistically divided into 8 regions. The National Assembly, which is a legislative body, constitutes 120 members and the members are elected every five years. Election age is eighteen.
The Senegalese economy is usually based on farming. Most of the land is cultivated and it is a great benefit to the economy. Only recently has this production been reduced. Nearly 70% of the workforce is in agriculture. Other important agricultural products; millet, rice and broomstick. Livestock has not improved much. Cattle, goats and sheep are usually grown. Approximately 15% of the country’s land is available for planting.
Senegal is the most industrialized country of French West African territories almost immediately before. However, the industry and the industry do not play a big role in the economy.
Food and fishing are available. The single most important minerals in the country are phosphates. Yenegal’s currency CFA is “Frank African Community” (Financial Community). A large part of his import is done from France and some from the USA. The merchandise produced by it is mostly exported to France and England. The foreign country usually sells phosphates with peanuts and products and receives more motor vehicles, rice, sugar, machinery and textile products from abroad.
Senegal has a well-developed transport system. The length of the highways is about 15.000 km. Only 30% of these roads are paved. Cities are interconnected by a regular railroad. There is an airport in almost every city and there is a regular domestic line system.Senegal is very suitable for renting cars and renting cars.