Saudi Arabia is surrounded by the Red Sea. The two cities considered sacred according to Islam are Mecca-i Mükerreme and Medina-i Münevvere in the Hijaz region of Saudi Arabia. It is located in the Arabian Peninsula between 16 ° 11 ‘- 32 ° 09’ northern latitudes and 34 ° 34 ‘- 55 ° 41’ east longitudes. This area is also called Haremeyn. It was ruled by the Ottomans for centuries. In the middle of the 18th century, the emergence of a religious movement and then a political movement became the foundation of the Saud state.
The history of Arabia begins with the first created human being and the first prophet, Hazret-i Adam (see Adam Aleyhisselam). Many prophets came after Hazrat al-Adem on the land of Arabia. From these, Hazrat al-Nuh is the second father of mankind. The Arabs were descended from “Sam”, one of the three sons of Hazret-i Nûh. (See Nahm al-Hasselam). Therefore, those who first live on the territory of the country are called “Samiler”. For those who came after the Sami, I mean Arab-i aribe. A number of states such as Himyer, Gassan and Hire were established. With the ancient Arabs, the interference of newcomers,
The Arabs have come to the ranch. Before Islam, the Arabs lived in various tribes. The most honorable of them was Quraysh; Hazrat Muhammad came from this covenant, and in 610 he began communicating the religion of Islam. In 630 Mecca was conquered. (See Muhammad Aleyhisselam) When Hazrat Muhammad died in 632, the Four Caliphs (632-661) began to take over.
Bahrain, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Africa, Caucasus and Horasan were conquered. After the four Caliph cycle and the six-month caliphate of Hazrat Hasan, the state administration passed to Emevil in 662. Sicily, Afghanistan, Samarkand, Erzurum, Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Bukhara, Harzem, Indian lands Malatya and Turkestan were conquered. The borders extended from the Atlantic Ocean and France to Turkestan. (See Umayev) After the Umayyad Caliphate, the Abbasi Caliphate began to take over in 750 BC.
But the Abbasids losing strength and reputation day by day. In addition to various internal rebellions and land losses, the Mongol catastrophe brought fetret devrine in 1258. After three years of fetishization, the Abbasid caliphate in Egypt continued until 1517. (See Abbasids) On the Arabian Peninsula, Sultan Sultan Selim Han (1512-1520), Ottoman rule took over.
Mecca and Medina, under the influence of this state, also recognized Ottoman rule after Sultan Selim Han took the Egypt with the Battle of Ridaniye in 1517 and put an end to the Mamluk State. At that time Şerif Berekat bin Muhammed Hasani, who had been in Mecca’s emirate, immediately sent his son Sharif Abu Nümey, who was twelve years old, to Egypt with an embassy delegation and presented the keys of Mecca with his revelations to the Ottoman Sultan.
Şerif Abû Nümey was accepted by Sultan Selim Khan, the Ottoman Sultan. Şerif Abû Nümey was dressed in hil’at and drowned the Sultan’s hand. Şerif Berekat was sent to Mecca with gifts given to his son. Salary was attached to the Mecca order from the Egyptian treasure. In addition, together with Şerif Abu Nuim, the Sultan sent 200,000 gold medals in abundance to be distributed to the Mecca and Medina ahalis. They were taken to take two women from Egypt with Emir Muslihiddin and distribute them in their neighborhoods. Since 1517, the names of the Ottoman sultans were mentioned in the hut on the mosques and in the mosques in Medina. The orders of the orders were also made by the Ottoman sultans.
When the sheriff of Mecca expires or vacates the office with a minor or resignation, the new orders to be appointed to the sheriff were appointed by the Sultan upon the supply and inhalation of the governors of Egypt, Damascus and Jeddah with the election of the sheriffs. Order of appointment was made in this way for more than four hundred years. The Ottomans kept the region privileged. Because it is a mubarak municipality, it has helped with the auction of aphrodisiacs and made many works of high spiritual and artistic value.
The Arabian aiha was living in abundance between 1517 and 1818, when the Ottomans were under the control of the Ottomans, and their needs were welcomed with a great deal of necessity. The Wahhabik road, where Abdülvehhab’s son Muhammad began to spread in 1737, broke the tranquility in Arabia. This path is also taken as a political situation; It rebelled in 1791 with the support of the Bedevs in the region against the Ottoman State. Mecca Emiri Sharif Galib Efendi with the war. He kills innumerable Muslims and takes away their women, their children and their property. They attacked Mecca in 1801. Mecca Emiri Şerif Galib Efendi did not put them in the city.
The Arab tribes around Mecca became Wahhabi. In 1803 they entered Taif. He tortured Muslims in Taif, and brutally murdered women and children. They also attacked Mecca during the Hajj season. They can not enter the city. Sherif Galib Efendi, when entering Jeddah, Sü’ûd bin Abdulaziz entered the city with the agreement and destroyed all of the tombs and tombs. Although the Saudis went to Jeddah to capture Sharif Galib Efendiy, they were withdrawn from the strength of the Ottoman troops.
As torture, cruelty and robbery increased in Mecca, Sharif Galib Efendi came to Jeddah from Jeddah and expelled Wahhabi. They escaped to the mountains of Yemen. They run into a lot of tyranny and persecution. Şerif Galib Efendin’s recommendation that they kidnapped me from the city of Taif Wahhabi. Wahhabear gathered the ignorant, savage peasants in the mountains of Yemen, and increased their strength again to encircle Mecca. The city was delivered due to starvation. Again, they have suffered much tyranny and destruction in the city.
The persecution and destruction in the holy places continued until the Egyptian Governor Mehmed Ali Pashan arrived in Jeddah in 1812 and sent troops to Mecca. İbrahim Pasha, the son of Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, conquered the Weyhabirin center, Deriyye, in 1818, took Wahhabi Emiri Abdullah ibni Suud and his four sons and elders, and sent them to Istanbul and they were executed.
Although England wanted to start a rebellion within the Ottoman Empire, it was deactivated in 1857 with peace. In 1860, all orders were brought under the obedience and decency of the state. In 1897 Abdulaziz Er-Rashid, the leader of the Saudis, relaunched Wahhabi.Riyadh, November, Burey, the sheikhs, Mühenna in the village of Al-Saud bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz agreed with.
Abdul Aziz bin Saud, came from Riyadh to Kuwait with 12,000 hecinl. Riyadh one night entered in 1902. Rashid ibn Abdulaziz, Governor of Riyadh-Aclaim killed at a banquet. people frustrated with the persecution, he orders it. Three years were various battles. Abdul Aziz ibn-Rashid is killed. In 1915, the Ottomans work, mingling Abdul Aziz bin Saud, Riyadh governor made peace, including me.
Then on November warfare is among the Saudis with their pictures, Abdulaziz bin Saud, was defeated. In 1918, Abdul Aziz bin Saud, issued a declaration with the encouragement of the British. Mecca and Taif attacked. However, these cities Sharif Hussein did not receive Pasha. 1924 British capture mekkeemir Sharif Hussein bin Ali Pasha, took him to Cyprus. After this move by the British, Abdulaziz bin Saud, Makkah and Taif in 1924 he seized the comfortably.
The Saudis, of sağlayınca the help of British control over the region, they could not if they want to have the office of caliphate after the Ottoman Empire. Ibn Saud, Saudi Arabia in 1932 and founded the Kingdom. After his death in 1953, his son Saud bin Abdul Aziz went instead. In 1964, the board has been downloaded. Instead his brother Faisal was brought. In 1977 he was killed by his nephew in his palace. Instead his brother Khalid passed.
He also passed his brother Fahd died in 1982. Saudi Arabia 1948, which takes place in 1973, 1967 and joined the Arab-Israeli wars. Britain, France and the United States billions of dollars of weapons, supplies, combat aircraft, missiles are taken. 1990 Saudi who oppose the occupation of Iraq by mid Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Kuwait, acting to remove the “multinational force” made the base task.
Saudi Arabia is a kingdom that is considered to be the constitution of Sharia law. Both the executive power, and the king holds the legislative power, the Council of Ministers has the right to veto their decisions and their ancestors. Up and down all the important decisions related to administration, it is taken by the Saudi family. A political party, although the legislature does every citizen “parliament,” you can forward their complaints directly referring to the king called regular listening session, you can ask for the help.
Navigating reforms in Saudi Arabia related to the choice of the king. King no longer be able to choose his own successor. Instead, a special council composed of members of the royal family from their allegiance to the new king will determine the method by secret ballot. The three candidates will be determined by the King. However, the Council deemed insufficient for the rights of the king’s management will have the power to take away.
Physical Structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the Near East from northwest to southeast has a rectangular-shaped structure extends towards the non-uniform. It takes the form of a boot to the southern part of the eastward enlargement. Approximately 2.24 million km2 A large part of the Arabian Peninsula, Saudi Arabia constitutes the soil. Overall territory of the low lying areas of the coast, near the beach and in the high mountains of the interior consists of high and wide plains. West coast from the border with Palestine is covered with Yemeni border to queue up Serata Mountains.
The highest point of these mountains Distribute Razih in approximately 3657 m altitude. Hijaz, Najd located in the eastern desert. Najd Desert in the south and east Nüfud Dehne or Rubül Hali desert is located. Serata mountain river in nature are weak and short, they remain in small teas. Most of Tehama in dry sand. Major Behre great rivers, the SEC, the laws, Asher, and is bisected Sea. They would reach the sea by a sudden rain. Almost not no river in the eastern side of the peninsula, but this vast region “Valley” is called, in the form of the river bed, is divided into a dry creek. The largest of all, located south of Hicaz is the nature of the valley-im REMINDE Asi, it is extending to the Euphrates.
East of the country, Al-Hassa region and the southern part of YAYLALI is high. If Yemame with a portion of this area is mountainous and desert Nüfud. Red Sea coast “screed called” rocks, corals, and is covered with the island. Basra while others are low and indented coast. Some of the nearby plains and mountains to the coast in Western solidified lava residues (Harri they) are covered.
250 km up the coast valleys in the Hijaz inside, extends from the hills to the plains on the coast. The most important of these is crude Valley. Climate Arabia climate, the soil generally is hot, it is cool in the higher regions. Places where the climate is most suitable is the Najd desert area close to Yemen. Dehne Desert and the intense heat and drought in Tehama area is available. Tehame usually not in rainfall and average temperature is around 37 ° C.
No rain to get re around the desert temperature, 38 ° C at night, watch the day around 43 ° C. Hijaz and south has a temperate air. Even Medina-i would be even Münevver’in and Taifa winter snow. The annual average rainfall is about 160 to 180 mm. However, partial greens that have occurred with the rain, hot and sultry “SAM (SEM) in the” named by rotating the dry desert winds with ash color. Natural Resources of Arab lands in general, are a unique natural resource of palm. Persimmons many varieties are grown. Amman, the country’s regions close to Yemen and Hejaz and Najd region in addition to the wide variety of plants used in medicine cassia, tamarind, fold and glue-i Arabi trees, rare plant species grow as well.
Not forests prominently in the country, most places are bare and stony. Except fruit trees, rarely juniper, wild jasmine and wild olive trees are also available. Rain fell in the period of occurring greens and pasturelands, and dries quickly. Plenty of wetland areas and near Tehama, cane grows long and varied types. Saudi Arabian territory, is the original homeland of the breed camels and horses. The world’s most beautiful horses grows here. Najd region is the richest region in terms of horses and camels. Other areas where the more sheep, goats, cattle and donkeys are raised. In wild animals, the lion is the king of income foremost desert. Also tiger, hyena, jackal, boar, wolf, fox and monkey species live.
A large number of locusts in the country side and the Hijaz “ladug” “name is available a poisonous spider species. The territory is rich in mineral resources. Gold, silvery matches, salze, mined copper and many more varieties. Game vicinity of Mecca, sulfur vessels and oil are available. The Red Sea is an important source of salt. The pearl of the Persian coast is very famous. Population and Social Life of Saudi Arabia’s population is 14.691 million. Annual population growth rate is 6%, the population density is 5. After the Prophet Noah, who settled in the Arabian Peninsula “baie Arab-i” is called. Aad, Thamud and Amalie is one of them. All of these “Sam” made of descendants.
While those in Yemen, “Arab-i ariba” is called. Two of the mixing of the “Interface-i müsta’reb A” occurred. Arabs after Islam was involved with strangers. Licenses changes to “Arab-i müsta’c Game” have the name. Arabia since ancient times because of the lineage and was given much importance. So many tribes are available. Each is administered to şeyhlikl. The most populous and most powerful Quraysh tribe of Arabia. Quraysh, Prophet Prophet Fihri, which is the name of my father eleventh. Arab-i from müsta’rebe’ “Adnan Me” and among the “Mud” and “Rabia” tribes became famous. “Benimud is” from Kenana, the Quraysh, Hevaz’s, Beaufort, Tamim and Muzeyne tribes occurred.
Quraish tribe to settle in Mecca also won the honor. Tribal chiefs, to agree on the important things, in Mecca “in Dar-reputation-nedv” They would gather in the so-called consultation. The Quraysh tribe, was divided on the arm. ZemZem dispensing and Kabeu repair and decorating job, which was given to the most honored Hashemi. Today Saudi Arabia is people are coming after them mingling with strangers. Current ethnic structure of the country has changed a lot compared to the past. Genuine Arabs is no longer so. The majority of Saudis, Egyptians and Yemenis poses. Furthermore, Palestinians, Jordanians, Syrians, Pakistanis, Indians, Negroes, and some also live people from Europe and the Americas. You’re a part of close to 70% of the population live in cities.
The language is Arabic. But today is a very different form of Arabic. So Qureshi in the first year İslamiyyet Arabia is almost left. Arabic is in different dialects in various Arab countries. Today’s Arabs are two parts in terms of lives. One part is the other part of the urban nomad. But recently established urban population has increased much more than in the modern city. Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism is widespread and is government support. People’s literacy rate is around 15%.
Medina, Jeddah and Riyadh University is famous. Training and education is free and free. Kabe-i-Sharif is the country’s capital Riyadh is a large and bustling city. Other important cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Yenbo, is Anaiza Abha. Makkah is about 64 km inland from the coast but repeated. Qibla of İslam Un, the Kaaba-i tremendous Almighty’s house in this city. Efdal the mosque of Kaaba-i stupendous, then it is haram around the Masjid-i. Kaba-Sharif, made by Prophet Adam and Prophet Abraham and Ishmael were repaired aleyhisselam time.
Medina-i Münevvere on the shore and comprises approximately 320 km north of Mecca roll. Our blessed Resûlullah efendi Kaaba-i sheriff is here. Every year millions of Muslims visited the Kaaba-i sharif “pilgrims” are to be honored. Saudi Arabia, which has opened huge oil revenues by providing various welfare facilities. Health works are carried out free of charge. Riyadh King Faisal Medical Center, has become very famous. The country’s tourism is quite developed. Saudi Arabia’s economy Economics, has developed rapidly in 1932 with the discovery of oil has reached a level that will affect the world economy. Can the national economy of oil revenue constitutes the vessel.
The country’s most important industries are oil and oil products. Is the Middle East’s biggest oil producer. In this respect, it is the world’s third country. Parallel Petroleum, petrochemical industry was established. Other petroleum natural gas, gold, silver and iron are also removed. Economy takes second place in the agricultural field. Only 2% of the country is suitable for agriculture. You are part of a close to 28% of the population is employed in agriculture. The remaining 44% of the population are work areas other services, government affairs and trade, industry and one part 4%. Major palm grown agricultural products are wheat and fruit.
Agricultural lands are irrigated offer as part of a close to 85% of vineyards and orchards. Camels, donkeys and sheep breeding is developed. Accordingly, animal skins and wool production is available. Saudi Arabia’s annual economic growth rate is around 9.8%. It makes a large part of its trade with the US. Furthermore, Japan, United Germany, France and has developed commercial relations with Middle Eastern countries. Export is approximately twice that of imports. More than 90% of export oil and petroleum products poses. This is the first care of the world. Also palm, leather and wool products are further exported.
Economic relations with the EEC countries has increased recently. Countries in the fishing and tourism are two very important source of income. Income derived from tourism is very high. The country’s rail and road transport network is very advanced. Air transportation in recent years has become a very regular basis. Sultan Abdulhamid Han famous Hamidiye Hejaz Railway that they are committing up to Zerka. Abdülhamid Han, furthermore, Medina-i had built telegraph line until Münevvere’ye. Saudi Arabia’s main port of YENB, Jeddah, Dhahran and Ras Tanura port are. Saudi Arabia has car rental services and rent acar bulabilecg Our address is available.