Romania is an Eastern European country between 20 ° 15 ‘- 29 ° 42′ east longitudes and 43 ° 37 ’48 ° 16’ northern latitudes in the north-west of Turkey and in the north-east of the Balkan Peninsula. It is surrounded by the Black Sea, Ukraine and Moldova in the east, Ukraine in the north, Hungary and Yugoslavia in the west, and Bulgaria in the south.
The Thracian, a Hindu-European group, is known as the first people who lived on the territory of Romania. These are a branch of the Dogus BC. Between 800 and 300 BC he founded the Dakya State, headquartered in Transylvania under Burebista leadership. Between AD 106-271, the Romans invaded the people by invading the lands.
After the Ottoman Empire was founded in 1299, it soon became a world state. The Ottomans organized European expeditions, primarily to the Balkans, to spread Islam into Europe. Dovin in 1394, Belgrade in 1456, Vaslui in 1475, Schera campaign in 1476, wars of the Ottomans in the first step to Europe. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, two Romanian lands, Wallachia and Rodrigo, were under the Turkish sovereignty.
They acted according to the emrine of the Ottoman Sultan in military and diplomatic terms and gave annual tax. The administrators were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans. In fact, their derebeys wanted to stay in Ottoman rule to protect their ties from the attacks of the Europeans. The people of Wallachia and Voghdan were beside the Ottoman army against the other armies in the region consisting of Austrians, Russians, Tatars, Kazakhs and Polishes.
In 1679, instead of Şerban, the worshiper of Eflak, his nephew, Costantin Brincoveanu, passed. At this time, Dimitri of the Bulgarian Derebeyi. These two dervishes rebelled during the Ottoman-Russian War in 1711, helping Deli Petro. In this, the power of the Greek-speaking groups that migrated from Istanbul to the Balkans is great. They were influenced by the administrative life of Wallachia and Bogdan. On the basis of these rebellions and restlessness of the feudal lords of the Turkish administration for about a century, Wallachia and Bojdan thrones were put into a new system called “voyage”.
In this period, the Ottoman State began to take a pause. Towards the end of the 18th century, Russia increased its hostility towards the Ottoman Empire. With the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774, Russia gained some rights from the Ottomans, while at the same time gaining the authority to intervene in the affairs of these two venerable sisters. Although the control remained in the Ottomans, many commercial facilities were lost.
A year later Bukovina was left to Austria. In 1812, Besarabia came out of hand. After the Ottoman-Russian War of 1828-1829 until 1834, Wallachia and the Bulgarian entered Russia completely under the hegemony. Count Pavel Kiselev, supported by Russia, tried to remove the Ottoman civilization from the middle.
In 1859 the two provinces were united and in 1861 they were referred to as Romania. In 1877, Romania moved away from Turkish domination with the Berlin Treaty. After independence, it became a kingdom in 1878. In 1881, Carol became the first king of Romania. In 1886, Romania turned to a unicameral constitutional monarchical administrative system. After the First World War, the borders of Romania expanded.
After Basarabia and Bukovina, Banat and Transilvania were also seized. But not too long before, Basarabia and northern Bukovina were forced to leave Russia, which, as always, against the Ottomans they lived in prosperity for many years during the 1877-78 Ottoman-Russian War, helped them. In fact, South Dobruca was also abandoned in Bulgaria as a result of intense threats.
During the Second World War Marshla lon Antonescu attempted to unite with Germany against Russia. In 1944 Antonescu, leader of a military movement, was eliminated by Soviet entrances and King Michael, and Romania was beside Russia. Not long before Romania fell into communism. Although it became a People’s Republic in 1947, nationalization in all areas left it alone.
According to the new Constitution of 1965, Romania was no longer the People’s Republic and became a socialist country. In 1966, the perpetrators of the danger attempted to develop an independence movement against Russia. In 1970 and 1973, Romanian President Nicolai Ceausescu (Ceausescu) visited the United States. In 1976, a 10-year commercial agreement was signed with the United States to try to avoid Russia relatively. In 1982, Romania moved somewhat closer to the west, demanding the western countries to extend the repayment of their debts of around three billion dollars.
The first demonstrations in Romania began in late 1989, when the Communist regime was shaken sharply in the Eastern Bloc States. The bloody repression of the demonstrations led to increased tension throughout the country. After the Ordun was placed beside the rebellious people, Ceausescu, who wanted to escape from the country, was arrested and led to his case after being judged with his wife. The National Liberation Front, which undertook the administration, opened the way to a multi-party system by putting an end to the socialist regime. First free elections were held in April 1990.
The surface area of Romania is about 237,500 km2. It is located on the Black Sea coast in Southeast Europe. Dobruca, the eastern region, is located along the Black Sea coast. Approximately two-thirds of the province is mountainous and hilly, while the remaining three are plagiarism and plain land. It forms the backbone of the East Carpathian country. Drawing a broad curve towards the southeast, it stretches about 97 km and then returns to the west of the country where the Transylvania Alps take the name.
Thus, the Tansilian Plateau in the northern middle of the country seems to have been walled. These mountains are generally worn and low. The altitudes are about 900 m to 1800 m. The highest place in the country is the Negoi Tepes in the Tansilian Alps with a height of about 2548 m. The Transylvania Alps are higher than the Carpathians, and their extreme peaks are about 2500 m high. The Romanian mountains are covered with forests. The highlands of some mountains are filled with meadows and glacier lakes.
The eastern and southern skirts of the Carpathians are the Bulgarian and Wallachia spans, extending along the length of the Prut River in the east and the Danube River in the south. Located in the middle of the mountain arc, the Transylvanian Basin is a high spring with an average height of about 450 m. This region is divided in part by the wide and deep valleys of the rivers Mureş and Somşş.
Located in the eastern direction of the country, Dobruca is Romania’s only coastal zone. Dobruca is a part of the Black Sea region of Tuna with a coast of about 290 km. The north of the zone is low and swampy, the south is a sandy beach area and steep rocky. Apart from Dobruca, the country can be further divided into four regions: Wallachia, Bogdan, Banat and Transylvania.
It occupies one third of the country and is located between East Carpathians and Prut River, which draws the Moldavian border. The important city of the region is Iaşi. Wallachia, the capital city of the country, lies between the Transylvania Alps and the Bulgarian border. Cluj-Napoca is the headquarters of Transylvania, which is located in the very middle region of the country.
The part based on the Hungarian and Yugoslavian borders is the Banat region with its central Timişoara and flat, swampy and fertile plateau view. It is Canstanta (Konstanta), which is the center of Dobruca, which is located to the east of the country. The middle of the region starting from the northern Danube delta is filled with lakes. The southern region is known as the “Romanian Riviera” and there are many beaches.
Romania’s climate is a typical black climate with moderate humidity. Climate varies widely, depending on the seasons and regions. Summer months are arid and hot, winter months are hard and snowy. As the autumn season takes a long time, Spring will show itself very briefly. January temperature average is about -3 ° C and June temperature average is 23 ° C.
The precipitation of the country is almost the same everywhere, while eastern regions and mountainous areas receive slightly more precipitation than others. In the mountainous areas, annual precipitation average is about 1270 mm and 380 mm in Delta region. In the whole of the country, the annual precipitation rate is around 715 mm. It is possible to come across droughts during spring and summer months.
Four of the country is forested. Only a tenth of the country’s surface area is formed from bare mountains and water. Nearly one third of the soil is available for planting.
The topographic diversity of Romania is remarkably balanced, attracting attention with its wide plains, numerous rivers and waterways, fertile soils and suitable climate.
There are extensive meadow areas in the dense forested mountains. This gives wide opportunities for livestock, especially sheep. Frequent forests are a source of lumber, and hill skirts are a region full of vineyards and fruit gardens.
Mountains and skirts are also rich in iron and salt deposits. Moreover, it has about two thousand kinds of mineral resources. Romania is the most oil producing country in Europe after Russia. In addition, it is also very rich in terms of methane gas (ural gas), which is rarely found in the world. The other underground riches that are found in the world are: Coal, lignite, iron ore, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, copper, lead, zinc, silver, gold, antimony, bauxite, mercury and uranium.
The main animals that grow in the country are sheep, cattle and pigs in general. The Doobruca region is very rich in fish varieties, bird species and wild animals. About 60 kinds of fish and more than 300 kinds of birds are grown. There are more wolves, kakum, wild boar and wild rabbits than wild animals.
Romania has a rich and permanent river network. Its main rivers are Tuna, Prut, Mureş, Somess, Iolomita, Siret and Olt. Hydropower potential from most rivers and waterway access from Danube and Prut. The Danube River draws the borders of the country Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Russia and is divided into three branches to the east. Then the marsh poured into the Black Sea by bringing the Tuna Delta to the waterfall.
Population and Social Life
The population of the country is around 23.168.000. The population density is about 94. Annual population growth is around 1%. 88% of the population is Romanian, 8% is Hungarian and 2% is German. Almost half of the total population live in city life. There are also Russians, Tatars, Turks, Jews, Bulgarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies and Serbo-Croat-Slovenian groups.
80% of the population is Orthodox, 10% is Catholic.In addition, some Muslim, was Jewish, and there is also a Calvinist Lütherist. Romanian is the official language. Hungarian and German are also widely spoken.
Social structure of the population after the decision of the country from communism after the Second World War changed a lot, there is no private property and free will. A big jolt to spend the communist regime in Romania in 1989 and was also reflected in the end of the socialist regime in the country.
The rate of literacy in the country is 98%. 70% of the young people are in school life. The high standard of living in the country, which caused the deaths of 1,300 people in 1977 to hit a heavy blow to the construction and industrial sectors of Bucharest earthquake and foodstuffs has led to a serious crisis in the economy of failure.
Large portions of the population are forming as the old Thracian origin of Romanians, income from MINUTE arm. Later, they gelmesiyleromalılaş of Roman rule. Romanians living under Ottoman rule for many years, and an’ane the Turkish customs, way of life and the influence of the justice system, they get a lot of the Ottoman cultural potential and continued them until today.
People’s marmalade in the Turkish food prepared today, soup, chicken soup, wrap, grilled, kebab, carp, cheese made from sheep’s milk, bacon, sweet caviar and Turkish styles are traces remaining from this period. Also tea and Turkish coffee, between the habits of Romanians girmiştir.romanya is başşehribükreş is the most advanced in the country. Other important cities they are; Brasov, Timisoara and Constanta are.
Romania, before Soviet Russia adopted the model of development. However, also he entered into friendly relations with western countries. On this occasion he was able to maintain its autonomy gained much difficulty. Front of the IMF became a member in 1971. The amount of debt passed $ 15 billion in 1981. Gorbachev and the USSR began glastnost surrounds the whole of Eastern Europe (renewal) Romania was affected by the move. To prevent this, the then-President Nicole Ceausescu (Ceausescu) toughens management more repression and violence.
Timisoara made in 1989 shows a gory suppressed. The Army took place on the side of people. Ceausescu was overthrown. Captured while trying to flee with his wife, they shot the political activity. Thus it ended the socialist regime in Romania. A National Salvation Front Council (MKCK) was established. Temporarily to the Presidency of the Council
of Ion Iliescu was introduced. The first free elections passed, the decision was taken. April 20, 1990 in free elections held at the IR. MKCK in Iliescu’s presidential vote, won the majority of took over the management. Romania so through a parliamentary system, began implementing a free market economy.
80% of the country’s economy is based on agriculture, industry and 8%. 90% of the national territory is suitable for cultivation. But Romania’s national income from agriculture but covered a section close to 40%. Country is one of the world’s leading producer of cereal state.
The most important agricultural products such as corn, barley, wheat, sugarcane, grapes and fruit are. Furthermore, oats, rye, vegetables, sunflower, soybean, tobacco, cotton, hemp and flax are also grown. Sheep, cattle and poultry, it is common to train. Fishing is an important source of income, mostly bearded sturgeon and freshwater fish fished.
Romania is the world’s fourteenth largest country in terms of advanced metalworking and machine-building. More tractors, locomotives, electrical appliances and equipment is carried out via drilling. Industry mainly is based on iron and steel. Furthermore, chemical industry, construction materials, concrete, wood and wood industries, food processing, textile and nonwoven fabrics, clothes and shoes imalatçılık, rubber goods and petroleum industry are available.
The main extracted from mines in the country ; coal, iron, oil, methane, bauxite, manganese, lead, zinc, gold and silver. Romania is the world’s sixth-tenth of salt and natural gas producers. However, natural gas production remains dependent on imports of coal and iron.
The country’s currency is Leu. Tourism is an important source of income in the country. It makes 16% of the imports from Russia. Other imports from countries Germany, USA and Iraq. 18% of Romania’s total exports still transmits Russia. We also export to Germany.
Romania , hydroelectric power plants and waterways is a suitable country in terms of transportation. Founded in 1972 between Yugoslavia and Romania over the Danube “Iron Gate” gate, it is one of five major projects of this type in the world. Also Bistrita, Olt, and the Siret river hydroelectric power plants on the kurulmuştur.romanya car king, and rent a car perfectly suitable addresses.