Portugal is a country in the Iberian peninsula in the southwestern tip of Europe, surrounded by Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. Between 36 ° 58 ‘and 42 ° 09’ north latitudes, between 6 ° 11 ‘and 9 ° 30’ west longitudes, Portugal has a length of 560 km from north to south and 215 km in width. The Azores and Madeira Islands group in the North Atlantic are part of Portugal.
The country occupied with Iberian tribes (Lusitanien) in early ages, BC. In the 1st century it became a province of the Romans. Then the Vandals, Süevler (a German tribe) were invaded by the Visigoths from the 5th to the 8th century. In 711, the country was overthrown by Muslims. The Andalusian Umayyads (756-1031), Teva’if-i Mülûk (11th century) Islamic states were founded and dominated the region. Towards the tenth century, Terra Portucallis was named for the region between the Duro and Minho rivers. Portucallis has come to fruition from the combination of Latin Portas (port) and Calle (fortress).
Portugal became an independent kingdom in 1143. The borders have expanded with the wars he has made against the Meriniler. Towards the middle of the thirteenth century, today’s Portuguese borders are completed. Portuguese seafarers have spread around the world in the 15th century. In the next century, Asia, Africa and South America set up a large colonial empire in the Americas, holding most of the trade between Europe and the East. In the war that opened up to the cities of Morocco in 1598, when the Portuguese visited a heavily fortified city, the empire collapsed suddenly. Taking advantage of the weakening of the country, Spain, Portugal in 1580, adding to its territory, until 1640 ruled.
In 1688 Portugal became again independent with the Treaty of Lisbon. But since Portugal lost its former glory, a treaty of alliance signed with Britain in 1703, which lasted until the 20th century, was signed. He had to fight Napoleon in the 19th century when he was allied with the British. While the country was in war with France, in 1811 the king and his family fled to Brazil. During this period, the empire began to collapse. When Brazil proclaimed its independence in 1822, Portugal lost its only major source of wealth.
The whole of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century became the period of economic and political instability for Portugal. Fierce partisan struggles, civil wars pushed the country into turmoil. In 1908 the king was assassinated and two years later he was declared a republic in 1910. The sixteen-year period of the republic was rather unstable, in which forty-eight governments were established and at least twenty-five coup attempts were made. In 1926 the army took over the administration and forty-eight years the country was dictated by General Franko.
On April 25, 1974, when the government was removed from work as a result of a coup d’état made by young officers, General Antonio took control of a military junta under the leadership of Spinola. President Spinola has been forced to step down at the end of September of the same year, as a result of pressure from leftist officers. In April 1975, the Soviet-backed communist party increased its influence, despite the democratic parties winning 64% of the votes. Banks, insurance and industry were nationalized. The goal of the socialist transition in the new Constitution, which entered into force in 1976, was also clearly demonstrated. In the general elections held after the new Constitution, no party could gain majority.
Socialist Party President Mário Soares founded a minority government. Chief of General Staff Antánio Ramalho Eones was elected to the presidency. The government headed by Mário Soares resigned in December 1977. The coalition government established in January and a number of subsequent coalitions were short-lived. After the elections in 1980, the center-right Democratic Alliance came to power in large part.
This government made major changes in the constitution and opened the way to civilian governance. In 1982, the President took the decision of early elections on the governing government. In the elections held in April 1983, the Portuguese Socialist Party, which came to the status of the first party, formed a coalition with the Social Democratic Party. Portugal was taken to EEC on 1 January 1986. Soares was elected the first civilian president in February 1986 after 60 years of engagement. The increase in the number of seats in the Social Democratic Party in the elections held in July 1987 provided the coalition government established to be stable. In the 1991 elections, the Social Democratic Party again maintained its first place.
Portugal is mostly covered with land at low and medium altitudes. More than 70% of soils are below sea level from 400 meters below sea level. The Tagus River country divides into two distinct regions. The north of Tagus River is largely mountainous. Especially in the north of the Douro River, 90% of the land is over 400 metric tons.
The great plains are split with deep valleys. In some places the mountains exceed 50 km inland and 910 m in altitude. There is a triangular coastal rubble between the Douro and Tagus rivers, and there are several large valleys on the inner side. Serra de Estrela, which stretches towards Spain, reaches a height of 1991 meters in Torre de la Torre (Portugal’s highest peak).
Other major rivers outside Tagus and Douro that poured into the Atlantic Ocean from this area are Minho, Mondego and Zezere, which form part of the Spanish border to the north. Approximately 60% of the land south of Tagus River is below 200 m. This is a region covered with undulating plains and low-springs. High hills are rare and only Serra de Sao Mamede has a mountain range of over 900 m. The only major river in this region is the Guadiana River, flowing in the north-south direction, bringing it to a wide valley and pouring it into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern tip of the country.
To the north of Portugal is temperate (temperate), to the south a warm climate. During the winter, the cold winds are bringing rain from the west. But as summer approaches, there is a warm dry air wave from the south and very little rain.
As the north part has a colder clime than the south, most of you are exposed to ocean winds blowing from the west, and more rainfall occurs. As you travel southward through the Tagus River, the precipitation diminishes and the hot-dry summer lasts for a long time. Temperatures on the coast of Paris are almost the same everywhere. Temperatures in Lisbon, located in the middle of the western coast, range from about 7 ° C to 15 ° C in January and 18 ° C to 28 ° C in July.
Around 35% of Portugal is forested. 90% of the forests are covered with oak trees. Other important trees are chestnut, fig, carob, and almond. Portugal ranks first in the world in making bottled mushrooms. Most wild animals are small species such as wild rabbits and foxes. Deer is found in mountainous regions. The underground riches are tungsten, copper, iron, marble, granite and slate.
Population and Social Life
In Portugal, which has a population of 10.372.000, people do not show differences in terms of ethnic structure. Most of the Portuguese are slightly shorter than Europe average, with black eyes and black hair. The people who brought the people of today’s country to the fountain came to blossom from the people who came to the Iberian Peninsula at different times. These are the Celts, the Phoenicians, the Cartagans, the Romans, the Jews, the German tribes, the Arabs and the Berbers.
The Portuguese have been migrating to many parts of the world since the 15th century. The government seriously prohibited immigration in the 1960s in order to preserve the workforce. However, thousands of young people, most of them young, continue to leave the country without law, fleeing to France and other Western European countries for more wages. At the same time, villages have migrated to city centers, which are new industries. The most important city is Lisbon, located in the middle of the west coast and its population is 2,063,000. Other major cities are Oporto, Amadora, Coimba, Borreiro, Braga, Almada and Coimbra.
The official language of the country is Portuguese, and the differences do not pose any difficulty for the people to deal with each other. 98% of the population is Roman Catholic, but there are a few thousand Protestants and a small number of Jews.
In Portugal, primary school is a junior and starts from 6 years old. In the country where the literacy rate is 70%, the high tuition is made in Lisbon, Oporto and Coimbra Universities, Lisbon Technical and Catholic University and in different institutes.
By the new constitution enacted in April 1976, eighty-eight administrative districts were settled into a socialist administration. The main governing bodies are the president, the revolutionary council and the government. The Revolutionary Council came from four commanders and 14 officers elected from the armed forces. Portugal is a member of NATO. The elections in 1980 were largely center-right Democratic Alliances.
The new government has made many changes to the Constitution, opening the way to civilian administration. The elections held in October 1985 won the Social Democratic Party, which defended the free market economy. In February 1986 Mário Soares won the presidential election and became the first civilian president after a 60-year career. In the same year, Portugal was elected to the EEC. With the amendment made in 1989, expressions about socialism were removed from constitution.
Portugal is one of the least developed countries in Europe and the level of life in the country is low. 31% of the working population works in agriculture, 35% in industry and trade, and 34% in various services. The manufacturing and construction industry provides more than double the gross national income. Agriculture, on the other hand, provides only one third of the gross national income.
In Portugal, food industry, textiles, furniture and the construction sector have an important place in the past. With regard to the food industry, there are milling, sugar, fish canned and olive oil factories. The main products of the textile industry are cotton, twisted wool yarn and elbised. Footwear production has also improved in relation to the clothing industry. Forest wealth; paper clay, paper, bottle mushroom, pitch, resin, naft oil and especially in the production of furniture.
One of the most important aspects of new industries is electronic machinery and auxiliary components. The establishment of petroleum refineries ensured that the petrochemical industry developed. Small diameter iron and steel industry is available. Shipbuilding and ship repair facilities made Portugal the first in Europe in this sector.
Approximately 55% of Portugal’s land is arable. Most crops of arable soils (wheat and rye) are grown. But the yield is low because most of the land is unproductive and subject to erosion. The labor force is inadequate, especially in the south. The country has to import wheat and other grains.
In Portugal, hanging gardens cover 10% of the cultivated land.
Olive oil production in the country is also advanced. As fruit trees, apples and pears grow in the northern half of the country, and oranges grow in the south. In spite of the wide variety of mineral deposits in portugal, most of them are not operated at the level requested by insufficient level and inadequate funds. Important minerals extracted are tungsten, iron, sulphurous copper, marble, granite and slate.
Portugal imports all of the petroleum that it needs. It exports eighty twisted wool yarn, fabric, dress, canned fish, bottle mushroom, paper clay and paper, electric tools. It makes up with the Commonwealth of Europe countries, which are the majority of the Portuguese trade.
The roads in Portugal were 51,953 km. 44,680 km of this is covered with asphalt. The railways are 3600 km long, compared to other Western European countries. Air transport is provided by 13 airports. The Portuguese trade fleet is relatively large in size and has a capacity of 750,000 tons.
EATING AND DRINKING
The Portuguese cuisine is a rich cuisine with a variety of recipes used in rice, potatoes, bread, meat, seafood and fish, as well as spanish cuisine. It is said that the Portuguese are especially fond of food made from Cuban bacon, and in Portugal these dishes called bacalhau are cooked in 365 different ways, different for each day of the year. Pastéis de Bacalhau, Bacalhau à Brás and Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá are the most popular recipes. Other fish dishes include grilled sardines and Caldeirada.
Cakes and pastries based on old and heavy dishes are common throughout the country. Lisbon’s Pastéis de Nata and Aveiro’s Ovos-Moles are sweet and their kits are very popular. Porto’s Francesinha ‘s is Portugal ‘s unique fast-food style. Other dishes include Feijoada, made with meat and sausage pieces and dry beans, served with rice made from white rice, and Cozido à Portuguesa and Espetadas made with the scalding of meat, rice, potatoes and other vegetables. Breakfast is important, and satisfying seafood is breakfast choices.
Portuguese wines have been sent out of the country borders since the time of the Romans. The Romans kept Portugal identical to the god of wine and entertainment, Bacchus. Many wine varieties, which are well-known by wine lovers today, have won international awards. Many well-known Portuguese wines are among the best wines in the world.
There are many options for shopping in Lisbon, but in Lisbon you have a mystical atmosphere for shopping and it is not possible to find markets set up in the squares. Instead, there are large shopping malls, boutiques open to famous streets.
Especially Santa Catarina Street is one of the places that attract many visitors from Lzibon. There are a lot of boutiques and shops in the lineup. One of the most famous shopping malls is Marco Polo Shopping Center. In this shopping center, you have a chance to find a lot of shops you are looking for.
Porto wines are at the very beginning of the gifts that you can recall your trip to Lisbon in the most beautiful way and bring your loved ones as souvenirs from this city. Taking a bottle from these wines and taking it to your country will remind you of your pleasant nights in Lisbon and you will enjoy the pleasure of having your friends taste different. Outside of the wines, you can find objects such as dishware made from china, among other products you can buy.
Places to visit
Lisbon, a city that dates back to ancient times, carries traces of many different cultures. However, due to earthquakes in this city, he lost many works.
The city is composed of the Balem Kulesi, Köpage Ranküleri, mixed, winding, sloping road and many hills.
Belem Tower: Belem Tower is a building similar to the Tower of the Girl in Istanbul. This structure, which is in the sea, was built to observe the marines that used to be in the past. When you go to Belem Tower, do not forget to see the parks, the museums in this neighborhood.
Belem Coach Museum: A fantastic place to take you to the fairytale land, a museum exhibiting phaetons used in royal times. This museum is literally a sign of how wealth and splendor lived in those days.
Köpage Ranker: Lisbon is divided into two by the Tagus River. There are two Dog Rank on this river. The most famous of these jump rankers is the 25 Abril Köpage Ranküs. Lisbon’s Dog Rankings have become a symbol that goes beyond being a dog Ranking linking a colony and adding a lot of beauty to the beautiful view of Lisbon.
Jesus Sculpture: One of the most remarkable structures in Lisbon is the Statue of Jesus Christ, which Brazil presents to Portugal. This sculpture is on top of a high building. With the elevators which are very famous in Lisbon, you can go to the top of this tall building and watch all of Lisbon through the arms of the Jesus statue.
Elevator (Elevador): There are many different elevators in Lisbon. Elevators located in this city are not located inside buildings but outside. And these elevators are often used for tourist purposes. If you want to watch the city from the top in the most beautiful way, you can go to the elevators. The lift, which was built in 1911 on the street of Santa Justa, is the most famous of elevators in Lisbon.
Oceanarium: Located in Lisbon, this aquarium is like a sign of how much the Portuguese have taken to the maritime past. In this giant aquarium you can get a chance to see many underwater creatures together. The ocean is divided into two, you can feel as if you are walking in the ocean. When you visit the Oceanarium. The most remarkable part of this aquarium is the sharks.
Royal palace: The china used in interior architecture is quite striking, as well as the exterior architecture of this palace, which has been used as the summer residence of the kings for many years. The tile designs used in many buildings in Portugal add a distinctive feature to Lisbon.
Jeronimos Monastery: Built in 1496 by King I. Manuel, this building is among the symbols of Lisbon. The various jewels used in the construction of the monastery give this building a rich image.
Nightlife in Lisbon is usually experienced in restaurants in the Port region. Here you can hear the most beautiful melodies of Portugal’s local music, Fado music. Apart from these regional melodies, you can find many bars and night clubs in world standards in Lisbon. In these spaces you have the chance to listen to all kinds of music from jazz to popular music.
But in Lisbon, of course, fun is experienced at Fado nights. Fado music has some pathetic melodies. Fado means “destiny” as a word. This music has longing and longing feelings. The loveliness that does not come and go is a sad music that is said for the wives who do not return to the sea journey. Although the Fado music is so sad, the entertainments that accompany it are quite enjoyable. The most popular beverage in Lisbon in the night life is the world famous Porto wines. In Portugal, rent-a-car and rent-a-car are very suitable addresses.