The Russian Federation is one of the largest countries in the world. North Arctic Sea to the north; east of the Pacific Ocean; west of Estonia, Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, Ukraine, Moldavia, Baltic Sea; south of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Caspian Sea, North Korea, Black Sea.
Official language The name given to a language in a country that is lawfully accepted. The official language is used in government offices. The official language of Turkey is Turkish. Each country has no official language. For example, in the UK there is no official language.
Capital City Capital city refers to the cities where the governments of the countries are located. In politics, the capital (or the metropolis) is the city that is the administrative center of a state; represents the center of the state. Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation. It is located in the western part of Russia. Its outer boundaries cover roughly an area of about 1000 km2 drawn by the Moscow Ring Road. Moscow, which plays an important role throughout its history in its political status, is still the biggest city and the leading industrial, cultural, scientific and educational center of the country.
Its population is around 9 million. 1699 After the Treaty of Karloffy, Russia, which has not been able to compete with the Ottoman Empire, was pleased with the Istanbul Treaty signed in 1700. Deli Petro decided to head to the Baltic Sea instead of the Black Sea and started the Great War of the World (1700-1721), famous for Sweden. . Initially, the Russians were defeated, but in the Poltava clash (1709), the war was in favor of the Russians.
Meanwhile, on April 9, 1711, when the Russian armies crossed the Ottoman borders, the Ottoman State made a voyage to Russia and the two armies met on the Prut River. The Russians have been defeated (see Pruth War). The Russian army under the control of the tsar Deli Petro escaped impeachment with the acceptance of the request for a treaty. Azak Castle and its surroundings were returned to the Ottoman Empire and the Russian castles around the Özü were destroyed.
At the time of Madonna’s daughter Anna, the Russians who had the opportunity of the Ottoman and Venetian-Austrian wars revived the Austro-Russian alliance. Then the Russian army took advantage of the Ottoman army’s presence on the Austrian side of the Crimean Peninsula, taking the Özü Kalesi in the western part of the Crimean Peninsula and entering the Crimea. On July 1, 1736, the Russians captured the remains of Azak for the second time. The Battle of Azak ended on 18 September 1739 with the Belgrade Treaty. Azak Castle was demolished with the treaty and Azov region was neutralized between the Ottoman State and Russia, and Independent Kabartay was kept as a buffer between the two states, and the Muscovites were removed from the Black Sea one more time.
The position of Russia The Ottoman State In order to rescue the Crimea from the invasion of the Russians, the sixth campaign was organized in Russia during the First Abdulhamid Khan. Russian Side II. Katerina The Austrian Emperor II. Josef and Alliance for the dissolution of the Byzantine-Greek project and the disintegration of the Ottoman State. On the occasion of Austria’s war against the Ottoman State as an ally of Russia, the Ottoman military was obliged to spend on two fronts. The defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the hands of firearms caused by the Yeniçerin was severely defeated. It was first withdrawn from Belgrade by Austria with the Peace Treaty of Ziştovi in August 1791. The ongoing war with the Russians came to an end with the Age Treaty signed on January 9, 1792, and it was accepted that the Crimean Khanate was completely Russian dominated.
At the end of the Treaty of Paris dated March 30, 1856, which was signed at the end of the Crimean War, Russian soil and a lot of material losses came. After this war, Russia understood the insufficiency of its armies and went on to innovate. In the meantime, on the other side, it increased the propaganda of Slavic and Orthodox against the minorities within the Ottoman State.
While many people died during the civil war, close to 2 million people left the country. After the end of the civil war, the Communists, who took over the administration, abolished the opponent’s ideas with great speed. Lenin founded the Communist Party, Russia’s only political party. Following the First World War, in the years of the Independence War, the Turkish Grand National Assembly signed the Turkish-Soviet Friendship Treaty in Moscow on 16 March 1921. With the Moscow Treaty, Batum Russia belonged to Georgia and Arpaçay Suyu in the east of Kars was cut off.
Lenin, known for his mercy and his persecution of his people, has killed millions of people. He’s been struggling to spread his unbelief. After his death Joseph Stalin passed. Until Stalin died, the Russian nation and Muslims were tortured. Leaving Lenin behind, he killed fifty million more people. He forced the nation to worship itself. The country by these two administrators; turned into a bondage camp surrounded by shame walls and covered with iron curtains.
In 1939, despite the fact that Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression pact, in 1941 the Nazis attacked Russia and besieged Leningrad. As a result of the long siege, the German soldiers were defeated by the cold winter conditions. Over the next two years, Russians removed Germans from Eastern Europe and the Balkans, while British and American aid played a major role in the victory of the Russians from the Second World War.
The dictator of Moscow in the Kurushchev administration, which replaced Stalin’s death, strengthened control by the great pressure he exerted on the Poles and the Hungarians. In 1964, instead of Kurushchev, Leonid Brezhnev passed. At the same time, as the Czechoslovak government’s liberal activities were seen, the Russian troops invaded Czechoslovakia in 1968, as it was done in Hungary. Tank palettes turned on human corpses, killing millions of people.
Russia, armed to dominate the world, established communist organizations in many countries of the world, threatening world peace and causing civil wars in various countries. The change of power in the country occupied Afghanistan in 1980, taking advantage of the coups and confusion. In the face of the resistance of the Afghan mujahideen, the Russian army, with its large armaments, failed to achieve success and suffered severe losses, giving heavy losses.
The climate of the Russian Federation in general is extreme cold in winters and hot and dry in summer. But the same climate does not occur in all of the large territories. From this point of view, Russia can be divided into four climatic regions: Cold-Tundra, Moist Forest (Taiga), Hot and Desert and Astropic Climate zones from north to south.
Cold-Tundra climate near the arctic region; It has a long, dry and violent winter. The summers are hot and quite short. The Taiga region is a rainy region. One third of the world’s wooded land is here. These forests bring about half of the country’s surface. When you go to the south, you come to the hot spring. The temperature here is very soft. In the Crimea, there is a subtropical climate. The desert climate, which accounts for 18% of the country’s surface area, also dominates the desert.
Due to the large air current from the west to the east, the regions near the Atlantic Ocean are under the influence of the oceanic climate. However, the Pacific Ocean side of the country is subject to freezing and snowy black climate during the six months of the year. For example, in the Siberian region a few km from the Pacific, the January average is around -50 ° C.
In the whole country, the summer months pass hopefully cool.
The Russian Federation is one of the most arid countries in the world. Nearly one-quarter of all the land receives an average of 500 mm of precipitation. Moreover, most damp areas do not have the warmth available for agriculture. The amount of precipitation varies in different ways.
Plant cover and animals: In the country with the largest territory in the world, it is seen that as the vegetation cover goes from north to south, the boundaries change to be determined by strict lines. On the northern coast, 164,400 km wide tundra brings a generation of waterfalls. On the lower part of it, there are forests from the coniferous trees that stretch 960-1120 km wide from the Baltic Sea to the Great Ocean. These forests are called taiga, and come from the pine, fir, spruce and birch trees. The next generation is the stepler. After that, the complexion circle comes. As it turns south, under the effect of climatic conditions, the vegetation becomes rather impoverished and becomes semi-desert.
A wide variety of plant coverings can be seen in mountainous regions. The Caucasus mountains, which determine the Georgia border, are covered with forests that cover the wintery topography of the region up to 2100 meters. There are extensive mountain pastures from this height. Common wild animals, lewings in the tundra, polar foxes and reindeer, badgers in Taygal, red hyenas, sable, black bear and fox, protection forest areas, wild cats, skunk; In the far east, there are leopards, tigers and bear. In the desert areas, yakau, lynx, jackal, gazelles and various birds, reptiles; On the steeps are various reptiles and antelopes.
The Russian Federation is a country rich in minerals. The world’s second largest coal producer, Kuzbass, Karaganda, Donbass and Perchora have large coal deposits. In Eastern Siberia iron, gold, mica, lead, zinc, copper, graphite, aluminum and diamond are important metals. Oil is being extracted in the Volga-Ural region and the Tyumen area in the Siberian Plain. There are also natural gas deposits in many regions of the country. While all mines are exported in sufficient quantities for the country, only tin production is not enough.
Population and Social Life
Nations: The population of the Russian Federation is approximately 145,300,000. According to the area, the population is low. The population density is around 9 people and the population increase is 1%. 65% of the population live in cities.
The vast majority of the people of the Russian Federation bring the Slavs to the square. The most crowded part of the Slavic group is the Russians. The Russians bring about 80% of the total population of the country to the square. They live almost everywhere in the country. Ukrainians, White Russians and Poles are the other Slavic groups present.
The Turks are at the head of the non-Slavic group. Turks are also divided into different tribes. Bashkirs, Chuvash, Chechens, Tatars, and the Soviet Union are the Turkish sailors who remain in the Russian borders after they have disintegrated. The Tatars were originally Turkish and the latter were intermingled between Russians and Ukrainians. They live in the Volga region, Urals and South Siberia.
The languages spoken in the country are rooted in five sources. These are the Slavic, Altaic, Indo-European, Ural and Caucasian groups. White Russians, Russians, Ukrainians and Poles speak slavic languages. The most important of the Altay group is the Turkic. Turkish is spoken of in some dialect differences between the existing lengths.
In the Russian Federation the population is generally Orthodox sect of Christianity. In the time of the Communist regime, hostility to religion was widespread. Religious rites have begun to be made freely. Most of the Turks are Muslim.
The cultural life of the Soviets, after the Revolution of 1917, has been changed. Communism took the place of the Tsarist era. For the communist goal, the principle of “every road is legitimate” has made civilization, morality and spirituality, mankind, prosperity and happiness forgetful, making a human animal a robot and a machine.
The absence of the right to property has dragged the person who was inclined to this to the reluctance and ambiguity. Art and literature, on the other hand, are very vulnerable, and some personalities and scholars who have become acquainted with them have tried to escape from the country. The Russian nations, deprived of the essentials of spirituality and sincerity, both remained spiritually and materially out of humanity, and their cultural and welfare levels remained low.
The communist education and training initiated after the communist revolt has become enormous in schools. Today, the literacy rate is 98%. High collecting facilities developed after 1970. In the theoretical sciences, powerful staffs are survived today, under the influence of political pressures.
The Russian Federation is in race with the US in space studies. Americans are far ahead of Russians in their Feza work and on their lunar journeys.
Much work has been done in the Russian Federation on atomic topics. The first reactor was run in 1954 and had a power of 5000 kW. In the last 10 years, the country has lagged far behind the technical side, and as a result, innovation movements have been initiated.
The Russian Federation is a country with a say in the world of sports. Spore is made big every year. Hopefully football, volleyball, wrestling and basketball are common. The symbol of the country is the bear.
Cities: Major major cities are Moscow, Leningrad, Gorki, Sverdlovsk, Novosibirsk, Kuybishey and Sverdlovsk.
The population of these cities is around 1.5 million. The capital city is Moscow. The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin (which refers to the fortified place) and it was built in the 15th century. It is the industrial center of the Leningrad region. Other cities with a population of around one million are: Chelyabinsk, Ersvon, Omsk, Perm, Ufa, Rostov, Volgograd.
The political regime of the Russian Federation was a communist dictator before the Soviet Union disintegrated. After the Soviet Union officially disbanded, a parliamentary regime based on multi-party and presidential systems was passed. The president of the state is elected by the people for a period of five years.
The head of state is also the chief commander of the armed forces and the president of the Security Council. The president has the authority to dissolve the parliament. The parliament comes from the 450 deputies. The parliament is elected by the semi-narrow regional electoral system and the other half by the proportional electoral system from the party lists.
There are also 178-member federal councils, which are formed from two representatives of the 89 member regions that have brought the Russian Federation to the festival. The Federation Council can not be dissolved by the president. The council approves the legislation and the president’s decisions on martial law.
The economy of the Russian Federation is based on agriculture, industry, forestry and animal husbandry. There is a great economic crisis in Russia and other republics established by the dissolution of the Soviet Union (1994).
Agriculture: Large Soviet territories seem to be advantageous for the country at first sight. But on the contrary, this and in addition, the extreme climate conditions and the lack of fertile lands are a serious problem of the country. There are few fertile lands in Russia. The fertile areas in the northern regions, if they receive precipitation, the precipitation season lasts very short. The economy is therefore weaker than the US economy and depends on the US in some areas.
Only about 10% of Soviet territories are available for cultivation. Existing cultivated areas, meadows, pastures and fruit-vegetable gardens can cover only 27% of the country. The main productive region of the country is in the middle and it can be described as “Efficient Triangle”. The base of the triangle is the Leningrad-Odessa line and the peak Altay Mountains. Siberia also has small areas. The main agricultural products are barley, rye, wheat, sugar beet, potato and sunflower.
Industry: Russian Federation, industrialized countries are among the developed countries. The main industrial fields are steel, machinery, machine tools, cement, paper, chemicals and automobiles. The development of the industry in the country has provided a great deal of mineral resources. About 40% of the world’s iron reserves are here. There are also rich coal and potassium salt deposits.
It has developed in the areas of iron and coal reserves, rather than heavy industry industry centers. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation is engaged in trade with the rest of the republics and all the world states. The fur industry has grown considerably in the country. Exports of fur including the Astragan (Karakul neck skin) are very important. Especially the sable and mink fur are kept very much.
There are pine, fir and oak in the European part of the country, and cedar, larch and fir forests on the Siberian side. Forestry has an important place in the economy. Approximately 20% of the world timber production belongs to the Russian Federation. More than 80% of the timber reserves are obtained from the Siberian region.
Animal husbandry is an important source of livelihood in Russia. Of course, cattle breeding is common in grasslands. Especially in the European territory of the country and in a part of western Siberia, milk production has developed in particular. Small cattle breeding and poultry farming are common.
Russian Federation, Atlas and the Greater Oceania because of its borders have large fishing fleets. While fishing in the Black Sea and Aral and Caspian Sea is not important, the best caviar is obtained from the Mersin fish caught in the Caspian Sea. Most of the fish caught annually comes from the North and Far East seas. Russia takes second place in the world after Japan in whale hunting.
The transportation network is very developed. Railway transport is more common than highway. In Russia, car braking and rent-a-car are very suitable addresses … In railways, line spacings are wider than world standards. Russian Airlines (Aeroflot) has the world’s largest transport network. However, their internal service is very low and the weight is given to the external services. Sea transport is quite good.
Russia was founded after the dissolution of the USSR was using the former USSR weapons and vehicles. However, the Russian Ar-Gesi, which gained momentum in 1998, produced new weapons. In particular, they established the world’s best quality missile system in Defense Systems. The Russian Armed Forces; Intercontinental-Long and Middle-range fuzies have been on the road recently in the province. Last summer Russia announced that a new missile test was successfully completed, but it did not give its name and information.