Oman tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

Oman is a state located on the southeastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula. Oman is surrounded by the Oman Gulf in the north, the Oman Sea in the south, the Democratic People’s Republic of Yemen in the southwest, the Saudi Arabia in the west, and the United Arab Emirates in the north and the United Arab Emirates in the north.

At the beginning of the Sixteenth Century, Portugal captured the Port of Muscat and a considerable part of the inner region. In the seventeenth century, their influence gradually decreased. Omanians have gradually taken control of the sea trade routes in the Gulf of Iran and near the coast of East Africa. At one point Socotra, Zengibar and some of the East African lands were linked to the Oman state. In the nineteenth century, Oman established a special friendship with England, which continued after the Second World War. In 1958, Guadar Port on the shores of Baluchistan’s Mekan and land near it were given to Pakistan.

In 1967, England returned the islands of Kuria and Muria to Oman. On July 23, 1970 Sultan Said bin Teymur was assassinated by his son Nightmare. The new sultan changed its name to the Sultanate of Oman until the time of the Muslim and Omani. With the leftist guerrillas of South Dofar, backed by the Yemeni People’s Republic and Red China, they fought until December 1975 to corrupt them. As a result of economic and military aid agreements with the United States, US forces were able to obtain naval and air bases around the Indian Ocean in 1980. Kabus bin Said administration remained neutral during the Iran-Iraq War and during Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.

Physical Structure The majority of Oman is covered with barren hills and ovals, sandy plains and deserts. The land remaining in the back region of the Gulf of Oman is mountainous and the Akdar Mountain which is the highest point of the country (3017 m) is here. The most productive parts of the country are the crescent-shaped soil between the mountains and the sea in the Batinah Plain in the north-west of Muscat and the southern Dofar state.

In the north is the famous Rubülhâli Desert. The total length of the country’s coasts is around 1600 km. Climate Oman is one of the hottest countries in the world. Temperatures usually reach up to 54 ° C. The average annual rainfall ranges from 76 mm to 101 mm, except for the Batinah Plain. There is hardly any rain in Rubulhâli Desert.

Natural Resources Most of the country is covered with deserts and stepless. The only underground wealth of the country is petroleum. Population and Social Life The number of people in Oman is 1.650.000 and 4-5 people per square kilometer. The largest population center in the country is the capital city of Muscat with a population of 50,000. 89% of the population are from Arabs, 4% from Baluchis, 3% from Iranians and 2% from Africans. The great majority of the population is Abdullah bin Ibad ‘s İbadiyya folklore established by the Hâricîs.

The official language is Arabic, and the vast majority of people speak this language, literate people constitute 20% of the population. Siyasi Hayat Oman is a country ruled by the Sultan and is divided into an eastern direction and numerous accidents. The Sultan carries out state affairs with a cabinet he chooses. There is also a 55-member Advisory Council appointed by the Sultan to represent various professions and regions. There is no written constitution of the country.

Oman has been a member of the United Nations since 1971. The economy is based on petroleum based on Omani economy and the oil constitutes 95% of the export. One third of the oil is exported to Europe, the vast majority of which remains in Japan. Since it is not an important industry, other export goods are agricultural products. Date, marbled lemon, pomegranate are the main ones.

The main import goods are rice, wheat, flour, milk, vehicles and vehicle parts, electrical goods and building materials. Oman is the most traded company in the UK, India and the Gulf countries. Transportation: Transportation in the country is provided by land, sea and air. The network of highways connects all settlements. The length of the highways is 27,438 km. Muscat and Salale have modern ports and airports.

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Ukrainian tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

Ukrainian is a state located in Europe. It is located in the north of Belarus, east of the Russian Federation, south of the Azov Sea, Black Sea, Moldavia and Romania, west of Hungary, Czech Republic and Poland.It is in the front row between the commercial and resort centers, and the dormitories are almost dazzling. Various states were established throughout history in the Historical Region.

The Prince of Kiev, which was founded in the ninth century and was the first Russian state, was destroyed in the 13th century by being exposed to Mongolian attacks. In Western Ukraine, the Principality of Galicia and Volynya continued to dominate from the 11th century to the 14th century.

Most of the country’s territory was under the rule of Lithuania in the 14th century. After the Lublin Union, which made Poland and Lithuania a single federated state, was established in 1569, the territory of Ukraine was virtually dominated by Poland. Leader of the Zaporozhye Cossacks Bogdan Hmelnitski rose up against the Polish government and asked for help from the Russian Tsar in 1651.

This situation caused the war between the Russian Tsarist and Poland. After the war, the territory east of the Dnieper River entered into the dominion of the Kievan Russians. When Crimea entered Russian domination in 1783, new settlement centers started to be established along the Black Sea coast. In the eighteenth century, upon the sharing of Polish territory, the territory of Ukraine on the western side of Dyneper was left to Russian domination and Galicia to Austrian domination.

As nationalist movements widened in Ukraine in the nineteenth century, the Russians resorted to violent measures to suppress these movements. Ukraine limited the use of the host. The Ukrainians living under the domination of the Austro-Hungarian Empire are more comfortable. The Ukrainians, who lived in Galicia during the beginning of the First Cihan Harbin, developed their own cultural, political and religious institutions. After the 1917 revolution in Russia, Kharkov established the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republics. On the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ukrainians took over Lemberg, the ruling capital of Galicia in 1918, and set up the National Republic of Western Ukraine.

Although this state was united with the Ukrainian National Constitution in 1919, the Ukrainian military was removed from Galicia in June 1919. Bukovina Romania, the former Ukrainian cities in the territory of Hungary entered the dominance of newly founded Czechoslovakia. The various states were unable to succeed even if they tried to seize control of Ukraine between 1917-21. In 1924 Ukraine became one of the fifteen members of the Soviet Union. Until the Second World War, Ukraine was rapidly industrialized and adopted a collectivization policy in agriculture.

The peasant reacted greatly to this movement. During the Stalin period, the pressure on the region was increased and the use of Ukraine was banned. Only Ukrainians living in Czechoslovakia have broad political and cultural rights. With the signing of the German-Soviet non-aggression Pact in 1939, the territories of East Galicia and Western Volnia, under Polish domination, were left to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republics. The Germans who attacked Russia in June 1941 invaded Ukraine in a short time.

The Germans, originally supported by Ukrainians, were later compared to guerrilla resistance. All the Ukrainian lands were under Russian domination over the Germans being defeated at the end of the war. The reforms that began in Russia in 1989 caused drastic changes in Ukraine. The first multi-party elections were held. The country has entered a new political and economic turnaround. Ukraine proclaimed its independence in 1991 and became one of the founders of the Commonwealth of Independent States the same year.

Physical Structure The territory of the country covers a large part of the East European Plain. There is an extension of the Central Russia Plate in north east. The Black Sea stretches along the coast of the Black Sea, bringing the Crimean Plain in the Crimean Peninsula.

The Karpat mountains in the west are 240 km long. The Crimean Mountains, between the Black Sea and the Azov Sea, come in three rows of parallel rows. These positions include valleys. The main rivers are the Dinyester and Dinyeper rivers, which flow towards the Azak-Black Sea Basin. Part of the Pripet Swamps and the Azov Sea, an inland sea, remain within the borders of the country.

Climate Ukraine is in a temperate climate. Natural Resources Mines: Ukraine; manganese ore in the richest regions of the world. There are also significant amounts of iron ore. Population and Social Life The population of Ukraine is 51,944,000 and the population density is 86%. 72,7% of the population are Ukrainians, 22% are Russian, and 5,3% are from other nations. 67% of the people live in the cities and 33% live in the villages. Its main cities are Sevastopol, Odessa, Kharkov, Denetsk, Krivay Rog, Zaporozhye. In Ukraine, education between the ages of 7-17 is incompetent and free.

Education is done in Ukrainian. There are also schools where Russian, Moldavian, Polish, Bulgarian, Hungarian, French, German, Spanish and English are used. There are more than 140 higher education institutions in the country and a number of scientific institutions affiliated to the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences Academy. In Ukraine, literacy is like nothing at all.

Economy Economy is based on agriculture and industry. The machine is widely used in agriculture. There are about 8,000 collective farms (Kolkhoz) and about 1700 state farms (Sovhoz) all over the country. On these farms, cattle are fed for meat and milk. Also cereals, vegetables, potatoes and sugar beets are grown.

Steel industry has developed in Ukraine. There are also factories producing metallurgy tools, diesel locomotives, television and tractors in the country. Sun fertilizer, sulfuric acid and sugar factories are important in the economy. Almost all of the energy used in industrial plants is derived from fossil fuels. Political Life The highest legislative body in Ukraine is the Supreme Meclis. Parliament members are elected every five years. The High Council appoints the President and members of the Council of Ministers.

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Uganda tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

Uganda is a state in East Africa. It lies between Sudan in the north, Zaire in the west, Rwanda and Tanzania in the south, and Uganda, which is adjacent to Kenya in the east, between 29 ° 35 ‘and 35 ° 02’ east latitudes at 4 ° 13 ‘north and 1 ° 23’ south latitudes. History Today’s Ugandans come from the descendants of two groups of immigrants: As the first group, those who came to the south about fifteen centuries brought the current Bantu peoples of the country to the fountain; then the second group from the Nile and Sudan settled tribes in the north and east.

In Uganda, the kingdoms like Bunyoro, Ankole, Buganda and Toro were established. The strongest state in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was the kingdom of Bunyoro. In the eighteenth century he took over the dominance of the fight against Bunyoro to dominate the region. In 1840, Arab merchants came to the country, causing some Ugandans to become Muslims. At the 1884-85 Berlin Conference, European colonial states agreed on a plan to share Africa. By the end of 1880, England and Germany had signed an agreement to share East Africa.

Kenya and Uganda in England, Tanganika in Germany. Since 1894 Uganda has been under the auspices of the United Kingdom. Uganda became independent on October 9, 1962. Thirty-sixth King of the Ugandan Second Mutesa passed to the Presidency. The president, who has been in a hurry, At the time of Milton Obote, there was little Jewish minority, 90,000 British and 50,000 Hindus brought from India, all of Uganda’s military, cultural and economic possibilities. Uganda Army in 1971 By overthrowing Milton Obote, they brought the popular Idi Amin to the presidency. The Jews of Amen, the British and the Hindus, came out of the land (see Idi Amin). At this time, the passages of Muslims increased rapidly. This situation has caused some powers to be uneasy. There were 26 assassinations to kill Idi Amin.

The Christian Tanzanians occupied Uganda after all these things. Turning from the extreme, he played political games with the President of Christian Christian in December 1980. Milton Obote nearly 100,000 Muslims slaughtered children, elders and women without them. Basilio Olara Okello, who took control in 1985 with a coup, was soon overthrown by the National Resistance Movement under the Yoweri Jewish administration. The novice, who took office as president, strengthened his rule by neutralizing the opposition guerrilla groups within the next three years. After 1980, the first general elections were held in 1989 and elections won the National Resistance Council. The country is in social and economic turmoil (1994-February).

Physical Structure A large part of Uganda is plateau. In the north and north-west the height of the sea from the sea level is 600 to 900 meters. It ranges from 1000 to 1500 meters in the Victoria Lake region. Many mountains rise on the plateau, and they dominate the eastern and western borders of the country. The Ruwenzori Mountains, whose altitude is more than 4800 meters, are divided into two by the border of Zaire. The Mount of the Volcano at 4321 meters tall lies along the Kenyan border. It is shared with the volcanic Virunga Rift at 4504 meters height, Zaire and Rwanda. Approximately 16% (42,439 km2) of Uganda surface area is covered with water.

The main lakes of the country are Victoria, Albert, Edward, Kyoga and George lakes. Victoria Lake is the main source of the Nile River. Climate Despite being on the equator in Uganda, the climate is moderate due to the high altitude of the country. There is no extreme temperature anywhere in the country. The annual temperatures in the south range between 13 ° C and 23 ° C, and in the north between 18 ° C and 30 ° C. Most of Uganda receives at least 1000 mm of precipitation per year. In Uganda, erosion is a more important issue than drought. Natural Resources There are many different types of plants in Uganda. The most common plant species is the sparse tree savanna, which covers the entire north of the country.

Other plant species are the remaining trees from the old forests around Lake Victoria and the Albert Lake east, the arid steppes in the eastern Karamoja region, the open grassy savannahs in the south and southwest, the forests of the mountainous regions and the highlands. It is possible to encounter many different cinste wild animals in Uganda. Chimpanzees, gorillas, elephants, gazelles, lions, waterbirds, wild fauna and zebra countries. Important subterranean riches of the country are copper and cobalt. Population and Social Life Uganda’s population is 17,200,000, only a very small percentage (8.1%) of them live in cities.

Most of the population is located near Lake Victoria, in the east near the border of Algon Mountain and Rwanda. The number of people per kilometer is 59. The only major city in the country is Kampala with a population of 773,500. 98% of Ugandan people are from Africa. There are a few South Asian, Arab and European people. The Africans are divided into four main ethnic groups according to the language they use: Bantu, Nil language, Nil-Hami and Sudan. Bantu constitutes 65% of the population and occupies the entire southwestern part of Uganda.

The main Bantu groups are Ganda, Nicole, Toro, Nyoro, Soga, Gisu and Kiga. Nile people are located in the northern part of Uganda. The groups Lango, Acholi and Alur constitute their heads. The Nile-Hami peoples are present in Northeast Uganda, where Iteso and Karamojong bring large main groups to the square. Sudanese groups live in the northwest corner of Uganda. The largest of these groups is Lugbara. There are many different tribal languages ​​spoken in Uganda. The tribes in the same language family can not agree with each other without being perfect.

The agreement between the four main groups is provided in English, which is the official language at large. 62% of Ugandan people are Christian, 6% are pagans. Nearly half of the children in elementary school continue to study, and 25% of the population are literate. There is a university, higher teacher’s school, a technical high school and a high-trade school in the country. Political Life Uganda is a government-run country, divided into 10 states and 34 seas.

The Constitution of 1967 was suspended due to the military coups. The country is a member of the United Nations, the Organization of African Unity and the United Nations. Economy Uganda economy is based on agriculture. The main food crops grown are banana, cassava, sorghum, corn, peanuts, sesame and beans. Main trade plants are coffee and cotton, which constitute 80% of the country’s exports. Tea and tobacco are also grown for export purposes. Livestock is developing in Uganda, and cattle, goats and sheep are grown in the north-east and south-west of the country.

The fishery is advanced in the great lakes of the country and in the reservoir lakes. Food, cement, building materials and textile industries are developed industries. Tourism is improving. The length of Uganda highways is about 28.332 km, which is 2240 km long. The railway that runs between Kampala and Kenya’s Mombasa city has been extended to the west in Kasse and to Pakwach in Kenya near Tororo from the Albert Nile. Near the Kompala there is the international airport in Entebbe. Car rental and rental agency is also very convenient in.

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Tajikistan tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

Tajikistan Tajikistan is a state in Central Asia. Surrounded by China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in the west and north, the territory of Tajikistan is located in the mountainous parts of Asia. Tajiks, Iranian descendants, were under the dominion of the Persians, Alexander the Great and the states established after him, respectively. During the seventh and eighth centuries, the Muslim Arabs conquered the region inhabited by the Tajiks and gave them the name of the region.

The Tajiks who accepted the Muslims in a short time were greatly influenced by the culture and language of the Turks who dominated the region. The Tajiks lived under the rule of the Bukhara Khanate from the 15th century to the mid 18th century. Later on, the Afghans conquering the south and south-west lands of the Ceyhun River accepted the Tacikere rulings.

Most of the Tajik lands were captured by the Russians in the 1860s. The Bukhara Khanate accepted Russia’s rule in 1868. After the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia, a part of the land inhabited by the Jews was attributed to the Soviet Socialist Republic of Turkistan established in April 1918.

The revolutionaries who seized the administration on August 23, 1920 in the Bukhara Khanate which included the big part of today’s Tajikistan land established the Bukhara Soviet People’s Republic in October. Revolutionaries captured Dushanbe and Kulyab in early 1921. The people who rebelled against the new rule were suppressed in a bloody way, but the rebellions continued in Bukhara in East Bukhara until 1931, when the rebellious forces of Abraham Bhikkhus were forced into action.

The Bukhara Soviet People’s Republic and the Tajik lands belonging to the Soviet Socialist Republic of Turkistan in 1924 were merged to form the Tajik Autonomous Republic. It was administratively based on the Soviet Socialist Republic of Uzbekistan.

In 1929 it became one of the 15 republics that brought the Soviet Union to the fountain. The reforms that began in the Soviet Union in 1989 also caused radical changes in Tajikistan. The first multi-party elections were held. The country has entered a new political and economic turnaround. Tajikistan declared its independence in 1991 and joined the Commonwealth of Independent States the same year.

Tajikistan did not declare its independence, and three major opposition groups in the country began to struggle with the leading administrators. These were the pro-western Democratic Party, the Rastohen National Front, who wanted to reintroduce Islamic rule to Tajikistan, and the Islamic Innovation Party, which was forbidden.

As a result of the demonstration, many opposition parties were accepted. The Communist Party was banned and the Islamic Innovation Party became legal status. During the elections, Nabiyev left the presidency. But Nabiyev won the presidential elections held on 24 November 1991. The president of the Old Cinema Workers’ Union, supported by three opposition parties, was found to have been cheated on the elections, Davlat Hudonajov. In Tajikistan, the poorest of the Central Asian republics, the poor economy is causing unrest.

Physical Structure Most of Tajikistan’s land is covered with mountains. More than half of the land is over 3000 meters high. In the north are the western extensions of the Gods Mountains, in the central part are the southern extensions of the same mountains and in the south-east are the glaciers-covered peaks of the Pamir-Alay mountain range. There are wide valleys among the mountains in the south. Because all of your land is located on the zelzele basin, it often lands in the country. The lakes in the country are gathered in the Pamir region and the numbers are very few. It is the Karakul Lake, which is 3960 m high from the biggest sea of ​​the lakes. The waters that originate from the mountains bring forth the arms of the Glacies Derya and Amu Derya rivers.

Amu Derya (Ceyhun) depicts a large part of the south border of the republic. The other important stream is the Zerefşan River which passes through the central part of the republic. Climate Tajikistan has a hard land climate. There is an Astropic climate in the valleys. The summers are very hot and dry. The amount of rainfall is generally low. The average annual precipitation varies from 150 to 250 mm. In the mountainous regions, the winters are very cold and the temperature sometimes drops to -46 ° C. The mountainous regions receive less rainfall than the valleys. The average rainfall is 60-80 mm.

Natural Resources: Tajikistan, rich in underground resources, has iron ore, lead, zinc, antimony, mercury, gold, tin, tungsten, oil, natural gas and coal deposits. Plant cover: Because of the earth’s shape and climate conditions, it has a very rich vegetation cover and animal existence. There are over five thousand species of flowers in the country.

Population and Social Life The population of Tajikistan is 5,358,000 and the population density is 37. The population growth in the country is very high. 62% of the population of Tajikistan belongs to Tajiks, 24% to Uzbeks, 8% to Russians and 6% to other nations. The biggest cities of the country are Dushanbe and Leninabad. Most of the population lives in small villages called wintering. In the majority of wintering areas there are schools, health, shopping and cultural centers. Education: Education is free and obligatory between 7-17 years.

There are many secondary schools with vocational education in the country. The Tajikistan Academy of Sciences was established in 1951 and has 18 institutes. Economy Tajikistan economy has the first agriculture plan. The main agricultural product is cotton. Most of the cotton plantation is done by irrigation. In addition, grape, sesame, wheat, barley, melon, vegetables are grown. Animal husbandry also has an important place in the country’s economy. Small cattle breeding and sericulture are common.

Flower breeding is common. Mining, hydroelectric power generation, petroleum extraction and cotton processing are major industrial enterprises. In addition, food processing machines, chemical materials and carpentry have an important place in the industry. In addition to the light industries such as knitted goods production, silk fabrics and carpets, there are also medium and heavy industries such as power transformers and cables and agricultural tools.

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Saudi Arabia tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

Saudi Arabia is surrounded by the Red Sea. The two cities considered sacred according to Islam are Mecca-i Mükerreme and Medina-i Münevvere in the Hijaz region of Saudi Arabia. It is located in the Arabian Peninsula between 16 ° 11 ‘- 32 ° 09’ northern latitudes and 34 ° 34 ‘- 55 ° 41’ east longitudes. This area is also called Haremeyn. It was ruled by the Ottomans for centuries. In the middle of the 18th century, the emergence of a religious movement and then a political movement became the foundation of the Saud state.

The history of Arabia begins with the first created human being and the first prophet, Hazret-i Adam (see Adam Aleyhisselam). Many prophets came after Hazrat al-Adem on the land of Arabia. From these, Hazrat al-Nuh is the second father of mankind. The Arabs were descended from “Sam”, one of the three sons of Hazret-i Nûh. (See Nahm al-Hasselam). Therefore, those who first live on the territory of the country are called “Samiler”. For those who came after the Sami, I mean Arab-i aribe. A number of states such as Himyer, Gassan and Hire were established. With the ancient Arabs, the interference of newcomers,

The Arabs have come to the ranch. Before Islam, the Arabs lived in various tribes. The most honorable of them was Quraysh; Hazrat Muhammad came from this covenant, and in 610 he began communicating the religion of Islam. In 630 Mecca was conquered. (See Muhammad Aleyhisselam) When Hazrat Muhammad died in 632, the Four Caliphs (632-661) began to take over.

Bahrain, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Africa, Caucasus and Horasan were conquered. After the four Caliph cycle and the six-month caliphate of Hazrat Hasan, the state administration passed to Emevil in 662. Sicily, Afghanistan, Samarkand, Erzurum, Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Bukhara, Harzem, Indian lands Malatya and Turkestan were conquered. The borders extended from the Atlantic Ocean and France to Turkestan. (See Umayev) After the Umayyad Caliphate, the Abbasi Caliphate began to take over in 750 BC.

But the Abbasids losing strength and reputation day by day. In addition to various internal rebellions and land losses, the Mongol catastrophe brought fetret devrine in 1258. After three years of fetishization, the Abbasid caliphate in Egypt continued until 1517. (See Abbasids) On the Arabian Peninsula, Sultan Sultan Selim Han (1512-1520), Ottoman rule took over.

Mecca and Medina, under the influence of this state, also recognized Ottoman rule after Sultan Selim Han took the Egypt with the Battle of Ridaniye in 1517 and put an end to the Mamluk State. At that time Şerif Berekat bin Muhammed Hasani, who had been in Mecca’s emirate, immediately sent his son Sharif Abu Nümey, who was twelve years old, to Egypt with an embassy delegation and presented the keys of Mecca with his revelations to the Ottoman Sultan.

Şerif Abû Nümey was accepted by Sultan Selim Khan, the Ottoman Sultan. Şerif Abû Nümey was dressed in hil’at and drowned the Sultan’s hand. Şerif Berekat was sent to Mecca with gifts given to his son. Salary was attached to the Mecca order from the Egyptian treasure. In addition, together with Şerif Abu Nuim, the Sultan sent 200,000 gold medals in abundance to be distributed to the Mecca and Medina ahalis. They were taken to take two women from Egypt with Emir Muslihiddin and distribute them in their neighborhoods. Since 1517, the names of the Ottoman sultans were mentioned in the hut on the mosques and in the mosques in Medina. The orders of the orders were also made by the Ottoman sultans.

When the sheriff of Mecca expires or vacates the office with a minor or resignation, the new orders to be appointed to the sheriff were appointed by the Sultan upon the supply and inhalation of the governors of Egypt, Damascus and Jeddah with the election of the sheriffs. Order of appointment was made in this way for more than four hundred years. The Ottomans kept the region privileged. Because it is a mubarak municipality, it has helped with the auction of aphrodisiacs and made many works of high spiritual and artistic value.

The Arabian aiha was living in abundance between 1517 and 1818, when the Ottomans were under the control of the Ottomans, and their needs were welcomed with a great deal of necessity. The Wahhabik road, where Abdülvehhab’s son Muhammad began to spread in 1737, broke the tranquility in Arabia. This path is also taken as a political situation; It rebelled in 1791 with the support of the Bedevs in the region against the Ottoman State. Mecca Emiri Sharif Galib Efendi with the war. He kills innumerable Muslims and takes away their women, their children and their property. They attacked Mecca in 1801. Mecca Emiri Şerif Galib Efendi did not put them in the city.

The Arab tribes around Mecca became Wahhabi. In 1803 they entered Taif. He tortured Muslims in Taif, and brutally murdered women and children. They also attacked Mecca during the Hajj season. They can not enter the city. Sherif Galib Efendi, when entering Jeddah, Sü’ûd bin Abdulaziz entered the city with the agreement and destroyed all of the tombs and tombs. Although the Saudis went to Jeddah to capture Sharif Galib Efendiy, they were withdrawn from the strength of the Ottoman troops.

As torture, cruelty and robbery increased in Mecca, Sharif Galib Efendi came to Jeddah from Jeddah and expelled Wahhabi. They escaped to the mountains of Yemen. They run into a lot of tyranny and persecution. Şerif Galib Efendin’s recommendation that they kidnapped me from the city of Taif Wahhabi. Wahhabear gathered the ignorant, savage peasants in the mountains of Yemen, and increased their strength again to encircle Mecca. The city was delivered due to starvation. Again, they have suffered much tyranny and destruction in the city.

The persecution and destruction in the holy places continued until the Egyptian Governor Mehmed Ali Pashan arrived in Jeddah in 1812 and sent troops to Mecca. İbrahim Pasha, the son of Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha, conquered the Weyhabirin center, Deriyye, in 1818, took Wahhabi Emiri Abdullah ibni Suud and his four sons and elders, and sent them to Istanbul and they were executed.

Although England wanted to start a rebellion within the Ottoman Empire, it was deactivated in 1857 with peace. In 1860, all orders were brought under the obedience and decency of the state. In 1897 Abdulaziz Er-Rashid, the leader of the Saudis, relaunched Wahhabi.Riyadh, November, Burey, the sheikhs, Mühenna in the village of Al-Saud bin Faisal bin Abdul Aziz agreed with.

Abdul Aziz bin Saud, came from Riyadh to Kuwait with 12,000 hecinl. Riyadh one night entered in 1902. Rashid ibn Abdulaziz, Governor of Riyadh-Aclaim killed at a banquet. people frustrated with the persecution, he orders it. Three years were various battles. Abdul Aziz ibn-Rashid is killed. In 1915, the Ottomans work, mingling Abdul Aziz bin Saud, Riyadh governor made peace, including me.

Then on November warfare is among the Saudis with their pictures, Abdulaziz bin Saud, was defeated. In 1918, Abdul Aziz bin Saud, issued a declaration with the encouragement of the British. Mecca and Taif attacked. However, these cities Sharif Hussein did not receive Pasha. 1924 British capture mekkeemir Sharif Hussein bin Ali Pasha, took him to Cyprus. After this move by the British, Abdulaziz bin Saud, Makkah and Taif in 1924 he seized the comfortably.

The Saudis, of sağlayınca the help of British control over the region, they could not if they want to have the office of caliphate after the Ottoman Empire. Ibn Saud, Saudi Arabia in 1932 and founded the Kingdom. After his death in 1953, his son Saud bin Abdul Aziz went instead. In 1964, the board has been downloaded. Instead his brother Faisal was brought. In 1977 he was killed by his nephew in his palace. Instead his brother Khalid passed.

He also passed his brother Fahd died in 1982. Saudi Arabia 1948, which takes place in 1973, 1967 and joined the Arab-Israeli wars. Britain, France and the United States billions of dollars of weapons, supplies, combat aircraft, missiles are taken. 1990 Saudi who oppose the occupation of Iraq by mid Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Kuwait, acting to remove the “multinational force” made the base task.

Saudi Arabia is a kingdom that is considered to be the constitution of Sharia law. Both the executive power, and the king holds the legislative power, the Council of Ministers has the right to veto their decisions and their ancestors. Up and down all the important decisions related to administration, it is taken by the Saudi family. A political party, although the legislature does every citizen “parliament,” you can forward their complaints directly referring to the king called regular listening session, you can ask for the help.

Navigating reforms in Saudi Arabia related to the choice of the king. King no longer be able to choose his own successor. Instead, a special council composed of members of the royal family from their allegiance to the new king will determine the method by secret ballot. The three candidates will be determined by the King. However, the Council deemed insufficient for the rights of the king’s management will have the power to take away.

Physical Structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the Near East from northwest to southeast has a rectangular-shaped structure extends towards the non-uniform. It takes the form of a boot to the southern part of the eastward enlargement. Approximately 2.24 million km2 A large part of the Arabian Peninsula, Saudi Arabia constitutes the soil. Overall territory of the low lying areas of the coast, near the beach and in the high mountains of the interior consists of high and wide plains. West coast from the border with Palestine is covered with Yemeni border to queue up Serata Mountains.

The highest point of these mountains Distribute Razih in approximately 3657 m altitude. Hijaz, Najd located in the eastern desert. Najd Desert in the south and east Nüfud Dehne or Rubül Hali desert is located. Serata mountain river in nature are weak and short, they remain in small teas. Most of Tehama in dry sand. Major Behre great rivers, the SEC, the laws, Asher, and is bisected Sea. They would reach the sea by a sudden rain. Almost not no river in the eastern side of the peninsula, but this vast region “Valley” is called, in the form of the river bed, is divided into a dry creek. The largest of all, located south of Hicaz is the nature of the valley-im REMINDE Asi, it is extending to the Euphrates.

East of the country, Al-Hassa region and the southern part of YAYLALI is high. If Yemame with a portion of this area is mountainous and desert Nüfud. Red Sea coast “screed called” rocks, corals, and is covered with the island. Basra while others are low and indented coast. Some of the nearby plains and mountains to the coast in Western solidified lava residues (Harri they) are covered.

250 km up the coast valleys in the Hijaz inside, extends from the hills to the plains on the coast. The most important of these is crude Valley. Climate Arabia climate, the soil generally is hot, it is cool in the higher regions. Places where the climate is most suitable is the Najd desert area close to Yemen. Dehne Desert and the intense heat and drought in Tehama area is available. Tehame usually not in rainfall and average temperature is around 37 ° C.

No rain to get re around the desert temperature, 38 ° C at night, watch the day around 43 ° C. Hijaz and south has a temperate air. Even Medina-i would be even Münevver’in and Taifa winter snow. The annual average rainfall is about 160 to 180 mm. However, partial greens that have occurred with the rain, hot and sultry “SAM (SEM) in the” named by rotating the dry desert winds with ash color. Natural Resources of Arab lands in general, are a unique natural resource of palm. Persimmons many varieties are grown. Amman, the country’s regions close to Yemen and Hejaz and Najd region in addition to the wide variety of plants used in medicine cassia, tamarind, fold and glue-i Arabi trees, rare plant species grow as well.

Not forests prominently in the country, most places are bare and stony. Except fruit trees, rarely juniper, wild jasmine and wild olive trees are also available. Rain fell in the period of occurring greens and pasturelands, and dries quickly. Plenty of wetland areas and near Tehama, cane grows long and varied types. Saudi Arabian territory, is the original homeland of the breed camels and horses. The world’s most beautiful horses grows here. Najd region is the richest region in terms of horses and camels. Other areas where the more sheep, goats, cattle and donkeys are raised. In wild animals, the lion is the king of income foremost desert. Also tiger, hyena, jackal, boar, wolf, fox and monkey species live.

A large number of locusts in the country side and the Hijaz “ladug” “name is available a poisonous spider species. The territory is rich in mineral resources. Gold, silvery matches, salze, mined copper and many more varieties. Game vicinity of Mecca, sulfur vessels and oil are available. The Red Sea is an important source of salt. The pearl of the Persian coast is very famous. Population and Social Life of Saudi Arabia’s population is 14.691 million. Annual population growth rate is 6%, the population density is 5. After the Prophet Noah, who settled in the Arabian Peninsula “baie Arab-i” is called. Aad, Thamud and Amalie is one of them. All of these “Sam” made of descendants.

While those in Yemen, “Arab-i ariba” is called. Two of the mixing of the “Interface-i müsta’reb A” occurred. Arabs after Islam was involved with strangers. Licenses changes to “Arab-i müsta’c Game” have the name. Arabia since ancient times because of the lineage and was given much importance. So many tribes are available. Each is administered to şeyhlikl. The most populous and most powerful Quraysh tribe of Arabia. Quraysh, Prophet Prophet Fihri, which is the name of my father eleventh. Arab-i from müsta’rebe’ “Adnan Me” and among the “Mud” and “Rabia” tribes became famous. “Benimud is” from Kenana, the Quraysh, Hevaz’s, Beaufort, Tamim and Muzeyne tribes occurred.

Quraish tribe to settle in Mecca also won the honor. Tribal chiefs, to agree on the important things, in Mecca “in Dar-reputation-nedv” They would gather in the so-called consultation. The Quraysh tribe, was divided on the arm. ZemZem dispensing and Kabeu repair and decorating job, which was given to the most honored Hashemi. Today Saudi Arabia is people are coming after them mingling with strangers. Current ethnic structure of the country has changed a lot compared to the past. Genuine Arabs is no longer so. The majority of Saudis, Egyptians and Yemenis poses. Furthermore, Palestinians, Jordanians, Syrians, Pakistanis, Indians, Negroes, and some also live people from Europe and the Americas. You’re a part of close to 70% of the population live in cities.

The language is Arabic. But today is a very different form of Arabic. So Qureshi in the first year İslamiyyet Arabia is almost left. Arabic is in different dialects in various Arab countries. Today’s Arabs are two parts in terms of lives. One part is the other part of the urban nomad. But recently established urban population has increased much more than in the modern city. Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism is widespread and is government support. People’s literacy rate is around 15%.

Medina, Jeddah and Riyadh University is famous. Training and education is free and free. Kabe-i-Sharif is the country’s capital Riyadh is a large and bustling city. Other important cities of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah, Yenbo, is Anaiza Abha. Makkah is about 64 km inland from the coast but repeated. Qibla of İslam Un, the Kaaba-i tremendous Almighty’s house in this city. Efdal the mosque of Kaaba-i stupendous, then it is haram around the Masjid-i. Kaba-Sharif, made by Prophet Adam and Prophet Abraham and Ishmael were repaired aleyhisselam time.

Medina-i Münevvere on the shore and comprises approximately 320 km north of Mecca roll. Our blessed Resûlullah efendi Kaaba-i sheriff is here. Every year millions of Muslims visited the Kaaba-i sharif “pilgrims” are to be honored. Saudi Arabia, which has opened huge oil revenues by providing various welfare facilities. Health works are carried out free of charge. Riyadh King Faisal Medical Center, has become very famous. The country’s tourism is quite developed. Saudi Arabia’s economy Economics, has developed rapidly in 1932 with the discovery of oil has reached a level that will affect the world economy. Can the national economy of oil revenue constitutes the vessel.

The country’s most important industries are oil and oil products. Is the Middle East’s biggest oil producer. In this respect, it is the world’s third country. Parallel Petroleum, petrochemical industry was established. Other petroleum natural gas, gold, silver and iron are also removed. Economy takes second place in the agricultural field. Only 2% of the country is suitable for agriculture. You are part of a close to 28% of the population is employed in agriculture. The remaining 44% of the population are work areas other services, government affairs and trade, industry and one part 4%. Major palm grown agricultural products are wheat and fruit.

Agricultural lands are irrigated offer as part of a close to 85% of vineyards and orchards. Camels, donkeys and sheep breeding is developed. Accordingly, animal skins and wool production is available. Saudi Arabia’s annual economic growth rate is around 9.8%. It makes a large part of its trade with the US. Furthermore, Japan, United Germany, France and has developed commercial relations with Middle Eastern countries. Export is approximately twice that of imports. More than 90% of export oil and petroleum products poses. This is the first care of the world. Also palm, leather and wool products are further exported.

Economic relations with the EEC countries has increased recently. Countries in the fishing and tourism are two very important source of income. Income derived from tourism is very high. The country’s rail and road transport network is very advanced. Air transportation in recent years has become a very regular basis. Sultan Abdulhamid Han famous Hamidiye Hejaz Railway that they are committing up to Zerka. Abdülhamid Han, furthermore, Medina-i had built telegraph line until Münevvere’ye. Saudi Arabia’s main port of YENB, Jeddah, Dhahran and Ras Tanura port are. Saudi Arabia has car rental services and rent acar bulabilecg Our address is available.

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Senegal tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

The information available on Senegal ‘s first capital is very small and not certain. For this, it is suitable to start the Senegal monarchy with the Tekrur Kingdom which was established in the central parts of the Senegal River, honored by Muslims in the 11th century. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Portuguese from the Europeans first arrived at the country. Later in the 17th century, the French were under the control of the region.

Surrounded by 12 ° 19 ‘-16 ° 42′ northern latitudes and 11 ° 22’-17 ° 32 ‘west longitudes on the Atlantic coast in West Africa and surrounded by northern Mauritania, Mali in the east, Guinea in the south and Portugal in the west and Atlantic Ocean in the west a state.

For a while, French remained Western Africa. He became independent in 1960. After that, he entered the democratic voyage under the influence of France. Léopold Senghor, President of the Progressive Sénégalaise Union, became the first president of the country. In 1963 a revolutionary attempt was overtaken. In 1968 there were disputes with workers. Prime Minister Andou became president after President Abdou Senghor’s retirement in 1981. In 1988, he continued his presidency by proclaiming the extraordinary state.

In 1982 a joint federation with Gambia was established. In this federation, the countries protected their independence and merely joined defense and financial matters. This unity broke down in September 1989 due to subsequent disagreements. The government has made great strides towards coming from the top of internal and external turmoil dragging the country into instability. On April 8, 1991, President Abdou brought Habib Thiam to the prime minister. Abdou was elected president again in 1993 elections.

Physical Structure 

Senegal has a surface area of ​​approximately 197,000 km2. Independent Gambia The province is surrounded by Senegal lands along the Gambi River, and its southern part, the Casamance region, is largely separated from other territories. The Gambia has entered the country about 320 km. Most of the stream is wavy, with an average of around 200 m.

In the foothills of the Fouta Djallon Mountains in the south-east, the altitude is about 500 m high and these mountains are the highest places in the country. The region of Senegambia is cut off by four rivers pouring into the Atlantic. Senegal, Saloum, Casamance and Gambia rivers. The Senegal River constitutes the northern borders of the country and is the longest river in the country. The western coast of the country is worn by the winds, including the strip is partly swampy. Verde Burne is located in the hilly and rocky part of the ocean. The rest of it is half deserted.


Senegal is divided into three regions with three different plant coverings, considering the amounts of precipitation; Sahelian, Sudanik and Casamance regions.Shehelian region has an average rainfall of 350 mm. The area is covered with coarse weeds, thorny bushes and acacia bushes.

The southern Sudanic region receives about 900 mm of rainfall. Here the vegetation is thicker and more. Generally, silk-cotton and baobab trees are more numerous and acacia bushes are bigger. In the Casamance region, precipitation ranges from about 900 to 1500 mm. The southern part of the country is covered with swamps and tropical forests in places.

The non-forest parts are greenery and abundant rainfall. Verde Burnu is a partly semi-collared and partly rocky and hilly area. The shoreline is typically muddy and covered with tropical mangrove forests. The climate of Senegal offers some contrasts. The coast and especially the northern parts of Dakar are open to sea breezes and have a sweet dessert.

In January, the temperature average is around 23 ° C. As we go north, the temperature suddenly increases as we approach the Great Sahara. In the south of Casamance, the humidity is high due to the coastal winds. There are two distinct periods in the country, markedly dry and rusty. The lunar season is more visible in the Sahelian region and lasts until the planting of the draft. Rustic seasons prevail, from the Sudanic region to the Mayan plantations and Casamance to the Mayan plants.

Natural Resources 

The four distinct regions of the Senegal, Saloum, Casamance and Gambia rivers, which bring life and vitality to the periphery of Senegal, are covered by various plant coverings. There are tropical mangrove forests on the coast, silk and baobab trees and acacia shrubs in the Sudanic region. There are not many wild animals in the country. More cattle, sheep and goats are grown than pets.

Population and Social Life 

It is worth about 7.400.000 people. The population density is up to 38 people per square kilometer. The annual average population increase is 2.9%. Most of the population live in cities and about 10% are in the capital city Dakar.

Other major cities of the country include: Kaolack, Thiéc, Rufisque, St. Louis.Senegal has a mixed ethnic structure and has formed from many groups, large and small. Volof of 37%, Serer of 18%, Peul of 17%, Diana of 9% and Mandingolar of 9%. The remaining 10% are many small ethnic groups.

The Volafans constitute the majority of the population and often deal with the production of peanuts. The other name of the Peullar who came from the line of Tekrur Kingdom is Fulaniler and they live nomadic life. The Diolas living around Casamance are of Berber origin. Serer and Mandingolar are engaged in farming. Almost 95% of the population is Muslim. There are also some Christians. The majority of the groups, including the Serer and Diora tribes, were honored by Islam towards the end of the nineteenth century.

The official language of the country is French. Because it has been under French printing and hygiene for a long time, it is common in France. In addition, each tribe has its own native language. The Volof, Fulani and Mandingo languages ​​are spoken a bit more. The reading-writing rate is low and is around 10%. Nearly 65% ​​of young people go to school. Teaching language and model is French and French model. There is higher education. 2000 native and 2000 foreign students study at Dakar University.

Siyasi Life 

Senegal is based on the presidential system of the Republic. Since 1978, democratic multi-party government has been adopted. The first president of the country is Léopold Senhor, who has been the leader of the country for many years. Its government is the prime minister and the ministerial council headed by him. With the constitution adopted on September 20, 1991, the President is elected by a people in seven years. It can serve up to two semesters. Senegal is statistically divided into 8 regions. The National Assembly, which is a legislative body, constitutes 120 members and the members are elected every five years. Election age is eighteen.


The Senegalese economy is usually based on farming. Most of the land is cultivated and it is a great benefit to the economy. Only recently has this production been reduced. Nearly 70% of the workforce is in agriculture. Other important agricultural products; millet, rice and broomstick. Livestock has not improved much. Cattle, goats and sheep are usually grown. Approximately 15% of the country’s land is available for planting.
Senegal is the most industrialized country of French West African territories almost immediately before. However, the industry and the industry do not play a big role in the economy.

Food and fishing are available. The single most important minerals in the country are phosphates. Yenegal’s currency CFA is “Frank African Community” (Financial Community). A large part of his import is done from France and some from the USA. The merchandise produced by it is mostly exported to France and England. The foreign country usually sells phosphates with peanuts and products and receives more motor vehicles, rice, sugar, machinery and textile products from abroad.

Senegal has a well-developed transport system. The length of the highways is about 15.000 km. Only 30% of these roads are paved. Cities are interconnected by a regular railroad. There is an airport in almost every city and there is a regular domestic line system.Senegal is very suitable for renting cars and renting cars.

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Chile tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

Chile is an independent state located on the southwest coast of the American continent. Chile is located between the Pacific Ocean in the west and south, Argentina in the east, Bolivia in the north, and Peru in the north. It is located between 67 ° and 75 ° west longitudes at 18 ° and 56 ° south latitudes. Northern Chile was in the reigns of the Incas until the conquest of the Spaniards in 1536-40 . The Araucanian natives in the south resisted until the end of the 19th century. In 1541, the Spaniards set up Santiago, the present capital city, to make Chile a colony.

Revolutions in France and America led to reforms and then independence movements. Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 provided the opportunity for the uprising. After the struggle between 1810-18, Chile gained its independence from Spain.

After independence, Chile was unstable because it was governed by internal conflicts, foreign wars and governments with widely varying political views. In 1879 the dispute with Bovliya and Peru over the rich nitrate deposits in the north ended with the Pacific War. When Bolivia and Peru were defeated in 1884, rich mineral deposits remained in Chile. For more than 50 years, border disputes with Argentina continued until 1902.

Chile remained neutral in the First World War. In the Second World War, in April 1945, he declared war on Japan. He joined the United Nations as a founding member in July of the same year. In 1964, the government gradually began to nationalize the foreign mines.

In 1970, first in Latin America, the socialist Salvador Allende became a Marxist president. Allende hastened the nationalization movements. In the three years of Marxist Allende’s rule, Chile’s economy has become much worse. The strike initiated by the truck drivers spread throughout the country. Housewives poured out on empty pans. Chilean strikes have become an anarchy and terrorist country.

In 1973, the Chilean Armed Forces took office with a coup. Allende died during the bombing of the presidential palace by airplanes. Military administration continued until 1983. According to the Constitution of 1980, General Pinochet was accepted to be president of the Chilean state for up to 1989 years and to remain in office with great authority.

Demonstrations, strikes and sabotages re-accelerated as the Pinochet administration failed to correct the Chilean economy. Those who struggled with Pinochet were Allende supporters, Marxists and Communists. Allende’s political and military relatives manage anarchy and terrorism in Chile from outside Chile. The 1989 Christian Democratic Party member Patricio Aylwin won the presidential election. Pinochet, who transferred to Presidency Patricia Aylwin, returned to serve as Chief of Staff. Chile has not come fully stable yet (January 1994).

Physical Structure 

Chile stretches 4200 kilometers along the Pacific coast, between the ocean in the west and the high hills of the Andes in the east, with an average of 180 km wide. The country is divided into three very different regions: Northern Chile, Central Chile and Southern Chile. Northern Chile extends from the Peru border to the city of La Serena. In this region is the Atacama Desert, one of the most arid places in the world, and the highest point of the country, Ojos del Salado Hill (6880 m).

Central Chile extends from La Serena to Chiloé Island and is the most important region of the country. The largest part is the center vantage between Santiago and Oncepción. There are many lakes in the south of Temuca City, and volcanoes with snow on all seasons. South Chile extends from the island of Chiloé to the Horn Burning Point, the southernmost point of America. This is a large scale mountainous area.


The climate in Chile is quite different from the regions. In northern Chile, the climate is fairly dry and almost no rain falls in the Atacama Desert. Desert conditions continue to the south until Caldera. The amount of precipitation is 141 mm. From La Serena, the precipitation increases steadily to the south. The annual rainfall in Valdivia reaches 2707 mm.

The maximum rainfall is 5380 mm in Bahia Felix, and South Chile is one of the world’s heaviest rainfalls. A cold and humid climate prevails in the region. The annual average temperature drops from 4 ° C in the latitude range of 10 ° from north to south. Thus, the mean temperature of 18 ° C on the northern border drops to 6 ° C on the southern border.

Natural Resources 

About one-fourth of Chilean soil is covered with forest. Most of the forests come from the hardwood trees. The main wild animals found in Chile are puma, wolf, deer and wild cat. The country has a lot of underground wealth. The main minerals are copper, molybdenum, silver, nitrate, iodine, iron, coal, gas, gold, cobalt, zinc, mangenese, borate, mica, mercury, salt, sulfur and marble. Copper constitutes 10% of the amount exported and iodine represents half.

Population and Social Life 

16,136,137 (60th place) The majority of Chile’s population (81%) lives in cities. The largest city is the Great Santiago with a population of 3.800.000, the other important cities are Vinaedel Mor, Valparaiso and Concepción.

Sixty-two percent of the population are hybrids that come from the combination of the Spaniards and the locals, 25% are Spaniards, and 5% are locals. There are also many Germans in the south of the center vineyard, and some Italian, English and French in the Santiago-Valparaiso area.

Spanish is spoken in Chile. Approximately 95% of the population is Catholic. There is also an Orthodox in the country. In Chile there is a learning requirement for all children aged 7 to 15 years. The literacy rate is 90%. It is made up of two colleges and five private universities with high college status. Universities are very active in the political arena as they are in all other Latin American countries.

Political Life 

In 1973, General Pinochet ruled with a military coup in order to prevent the communists from having power in Chile. He forbade the activities of the pro-Moscow Communist Party. From 1973 until 1989, the country was governed by a government that had come to the fore from most soldiers. Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin won the election in 1989 and became President of the Republic. In recent years, communists have been infiltrating churches, universities and trade unions and making bloody demonstrations against the government.

According to the Constitution, which was enacted in 1981, the Congress, which is a legislative body, comes to the two councils. 38 of the Senate’s 48 members are appointed by the president, while 38 are elected by the people. All 120 members of the House of Representatives are elected by the public. Chile is a member of the United States of America and the United States of America.


The Chilean economy is essentially mining dependent. Mining products bring about 80% of the country’s export revenues. The country’s industry is related to steel, textiles and forest products. The Chilean industry is expensive, and the Latin American Free Trade Association, where the member is a member, weakens the competitive power of the country.

Mechanization in farming and farmers’ tools are not enough. On the other hand, agriculture is largely aimed at trading. The main crops are cereals, rice, beans, potatoes, peas and grapes. Chile is one of the most important forest products in Latin America. But the forest industry is not strong enough to operate with total potential. Fishing in the country is in good condition.

The main export items of Chile are copper, iron ore, nitrate, iodine, wool, rice, beans, fresh fruit and fish. It is among the major commodities imported by machines, transportation materials, metallurgy products, chemical products.
The country trades with the United States at most. However, Latin American countries are trying to develop trade relations with Japan and European countries.

Chile has an advanced rail and road network and a very advanced airline service. 80% of the railway system is owned by the state. There are also car hire and rent agency services in Chile.

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Sierra Leone tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

Sierra Leone is a cumhuriet on the coast of West Africa, neighboring Guinea in the north and Liberia in the south and south. Having achieved independence in 1961, Sierra Leone is located between 6 ° 55 ‘and 10 ° north latitudes 10 ° 14’ and 13 ° 37 ‘west longitudes. Europeans first entered the Sierra Leone territory, becoming the Portuguese. In the fifteenth century, they crossed the mountains on the coast for commercialization and went as far as the interior. But they did not set up the settlement center.

In the sixteenth century Europeans began to buy slaves from the country. For three centuries, the country has been struggling with captivity. In 1787, the English settled the Friary town of Friedown, who was empowered to spread Christianity and their own culture. In 1808 the settlement center was converted to a colony of England. In 1896, England took the inner part of Sierra Leone.

In 1924, first of all, those living in the colonial were given the right to choose three representatives in the Legislative Council. In 1951, Britain held a constitution that gave power to the majority party in the colonies and the lands it received. This constitution allowed for a step towards independence. On April 27, 1961, Sierra Leone proclaimed his independence. On April 19, 1971, after a military coup attempted, Sierra Leone became a republic. With the referendum in 1978, a one-party state system was introduced.

The new constitution, which was prepared in the face of the economic depression under the single-party rule and the pressures on the way back to the multi-party system, was accepted by the public in August 1991. In 1992, a temporary government was set up to go to the elections.

But the bloody conflicts that escaped from the civil war in Liberia extended the democracy transition. In April 1992, after the 30 officers were arrested, President Major General Joseph Saidu was forced to flee to Girne. The state is being governed by a state council of eighteen. Internal disturbances still persist (1993).

STATE NAME: Sierra Leone
PRESIDENT: Freetown POPULATION: 4,373,000
AREA: 71.740 km2
RELIGION: Paganism, Islam, Christianity

Physical Structure 

Sierra Leone , a surface area of ​​71,142 km2, has a coast of 340 km in the Atlantic Ocean. Country lands include the islands near the coast, such as the Sherbro, Banana and Turtle islands.
The shore has usually come from mangrove swamps. It takes a plain that extends about 100 km inwards.

In the north and east there is a plateau region with an average elevation of 300 to 600 m. On the plateau there are many peaks exceeding 1800 m in height. The highest point of Sierra Leone , the Bintamini Hill (1948 m), is on the Loma Mountains. More than twelve rivers from Sierra Leone are poured into the Atlantic Ocean. The rivers bring swamps to the marsh wherever they pour into the sea. The main rivers of the country are the Great Scarcies and Little Scarcies in the north, and the Sewa and Moa rivers in the south.


A tropical climate prevails in the country. The annual temperature average is around 26 ° C. Humidity is generally high and precipitation is high on the coast. The average annual rainfall in the Sierra Leone half of the year is about 3000 mm per year in Freetown, more than 5000 mm. In the North, it is less. More than two thirds of the rain falls between June and September.

Natural Resources 

Most of Sierra Leone remains in West Africa (frequent forest), with bushes and palm trees in the south. In the high and dry deserts in the north there are pastures that allow the cattle to grow. There is a considerable amount of diamond and iron ware in the country. In addition, some bauxite and titanium dioxide are also removed.

Population and Social Life 

There are 18 different ethnic groups in Sierra Leone with a population of 3.957.000. The most important of these are Mende, who lives in the south, and Temnedir, who lives in the north. These two ethnic groups make up 60% of the population. Other important groups are Limba, Kon, Koranko, Sherbro, Susu, Loko, Mandingo and Fulanid.

The descendants of the disappeared Africans continue to live in and around the city.
The vast majority of the population live in the villages. The largest city is Freetown, the capital city with a population of 500,000. Other important cities are Bo, Kenema and Makeni. The majority of the people of Sierra Leone (54%) are pagans.

The remaining 40% are Muslims and 6% are Christians. English is the official language of the country. People in the south speak Mende language to a large extent. In the north, the Temna language is mostly used. Education is at a low level and the literacy rate is 15%. There are schools of the state and private institutions. There are two universities and two colleges.

Political Life 

Sierra Leone has a one-party cumhuriyet system. The country is divided into three states and an administrative region containing the city of Freetown. Sierra Leone is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Within the Organization of the African Union, blocs lack political power.


75% of the population working in Sierra Leone is engaged in agriculture. Agricultural products provide a third of the gross national product. The main crops grown in the country are cocoa, coffee, dates, rice and ginger. These plants are exported, except in rice. The commercial economy is largely dependent on the operation of the mysterious riches. Approximately 60% of the stone is made of diamond. Iron ore is the second major export item.

In addition, some amount of bauxite and titanium dioxide has developed. Sierra Leone ; extending and improving roads. The length of the highways is 14,500 km. An inadequate railroad connects the capital city Freetown to Makeni and Pendembu. The iron ore is loaded by a special railway at the gates of Pepel Harbor. The international airport of the country is Lungide.

Freetown is connected here by ferry over the mouth of the wide Rokel River. Although there are many rivers in the country, transportation is not available. Rivers, on the contrary, are largely preventing transportation to the sides. One of the most beautiful natural harbors along the coast of Africa is in Freetown. The marine links the city to the ports of England, Europe, Japan and America.

Sierra Leone exports most of the goods to England. Approximately 30% of imports are made from this country. Japan, USA and European countries are other major countries that have made trade. It makes very few trade with African countries. Sierra leone is very suitable for renting cars and renting cars.

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Russian tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

The Russian Federation is one of the largest countries in the world. North Arctic Sea to the north; east of the Pacific Ocean; west of Estonia, Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, Ukraine, Moldavia, Baltic Sea; south of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Caspian Sea, North Korea, Black Sea.
Official language The name given to a language in a country that is lawfully accepted. The official language is used in government offices. The official language of Turkey is Turkish. Each country has no official language. For example, in the UK there is no official language.

Capital City Capital city refers to the cities where the governments of the countries are located. In politics, the capital (or the metropolis) is the city that is the administrative center of a state; represents the center of the state. Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation. It is located in the western part of Russia. Its outer boundaries cover roughly an area of ​​about 1000 km2 drawn by the Moscow Ring Road. Moscow, which plays an important role throughout its history in its political status, is still the biggest city and the leading industrial, cultural, scientific and educational center of the country.

Its population is around 9 million. 1699 After the Treaty of Karloffy, Russia, which has not been able to compete with the Ottoman Empire, was pleased with the Istanbul Treaty signed in 1700. Deli Petro decided to head to the Baltic Sea instead of the Black Sea and started the Great War of the World (1700-1721), famous for Sweden. . Initially, the Russians were defeated, but in the Poltava clash (1709), the war was in favor of the Russians.

Meanwhile, on April 9, 1711, when the Russian armies crossed the Ottoman borders, the Ottoman State made a voyage to Russia and the two armies met on the Prut River. The Russians have been defeated (see Pruth War). The Russian army under the control of the tsar Deli Petro escaped impeachment with the acceptance of the request for a treaty. Azak Castle and its surroundings were returned to the Ottoman Empire and the Russian castles around the Özü were destroyed.

At the time of Madonna’s daughter Anna, the Russians who had the opportunity of the Ottoman and Venetian-Austrian wars revived the Austro-Russian alliance. Then the Russian army took advantage of the Ottoman army’s presence on the Austrian side of the Crimean Peninsula, taking the Özü Kalesi in the western part of the Crimean Peninsula and entering the Crimea. On July 1, 1736, the Russians captured the remains of Azak for the second time. The Battle of Azak ended on 18 September 1739 with the Belgrade Treaty. Azak Castle was demolished with the treaty and Azov region was neutralized between the Ottoman State and Russia, and Independent Kabartay was kept as a buffer between the two states, and the Muscovites were removed from the Black Sea one more time.

The position of Russia The Ottoman State In order to rescue the Crimea from the invasion of the Russians, the sixth campaign was organized in Russia during the First Abdulhamid Khan. Russian Side II. Katerina The Austrian Emperor II. Josef and Alliance for the dissolution of the Byzantine-Greek project and the disintegration of the Ottoman State. On the occasion of Austria’s war against the Ottoman State as an ally of Russia, the Ottoman military was obliged to spend on two fronts. The defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the hands of firearms caused by the Yeniçerin was severely defeated. It was first withdrawn from Belgrade by Austria with the Peace Treaty of Ziştovi in ​​August 1791. The ongoing war with the Russians came to an end with the Age Treaty signed on January 9, 1792, and it was accepted that the Crimean Khanate was completely Russian dominated.

At the end of the Treaty of Paris dated March 30, 1856, which was signed at the end of the Crimean War, Russian soil and a lot of material losses came. After this war, Russia understood the insufficiency of its armies and went on to innovate. In the meantime, on the other side, it increased the propaganda of Slavic and Orthodox against the minorities within the Ottoman State.

While many people died during the civil war, close to 2 million people left the country. After the end of the civil war, the Communists, who took over the administration, abolished the opponent’s ideas with great speed. Lenin founded the Communist Party, Russia’s only political party. Following the First World War, in the years of the Independence War, the Turkish Grand National Assembly signed the Turkish-Soviet Friendship Treaty in Moscow on 16 March 1921. With the Moscow Treaty, Batum Russia belonged to Georgia and Arpaçay Suyu in the east of Kars was cut off.

Lenin, known for his mercy and his persecution of his people, has killed millions of people. He’s been struggling to spread his unbelief. After his death Joseph Stalin passed. Until Stalin died, the Russian nation and Muslims were tortured. Leaving Lenin behind, he killed fifty million more people. He forced the nation to worship itself. The country by these two administrators; turned into a bondage camp surrounded by shame walls and covered with iron curtains.

In 1939, despite the fact that Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression pact, in 1941 the Nazis attacked Russia and besieged Leningrad. As a result of the long siege, the German soldiers were defeated by the cold winter conditions. Over the next two years, Russians removed Germans from Eastern Europe and the Balkans, while British and American aid played a major role in the victory of the Russians from the Second World War.

The dictator of Moscow in the Kurushchev administration, which replaced Stalin’s death, strengthened control by the great pressure he exerted on the Poles and the Hungarians. In 1964, instead of Kurushchev, Leonid Brezhnev passed. At the same time, as the Czechoslovak government’s liberal activities were seen, the Russian troops invaded Czechoslovakia in 1968, as it was done in Hungary. Tank palettes turned on human corpses, killing millions of people.

Russia, armed to dominate the world, established communist organizations in many countries of the world, threatening world peace and causing civil wars in various countries. The change of power in the country occupied Afghanistan in 1980, taking advantage of the coups and confusion. In the face of the resistance of the Afghan mujahideen, the Russian army, with its large armaments, failed to achieve success and suffered severe losses, giving heavy losses.


The climate of the Russian Federation in general is extreme cold in winters and hot and dry in summer. But the same climate does not occur in all of the large territories. From this point of view, Russia can be divided into four climatic regions: Cold-Tundra, Moist Forest (Taiga), Hot and Desert and Astropic Climate zones from north to south.

Cold-Tundra climate near the arctic region; It has a long, dry and violent winter. The summers are hot and quite short. The Taiga region is a rainy region. One third of the world’s wooded land is here. These forests bring about half of the country’s surface. When you go to the south, you come to the hot spring. The temperature here is very soft. In the Crimea, there is a subtropical climate. The desert climate, which accounts for 18% of the country’s surface area, also dominates the desert.

Due to the large air current from the west to the east, the regions near the Atlantic Ocean are under the influence of the oceanic climate. However, the Pacific Ocean side of the country is subject to freezing and snowy black climate during the six months of the year. For example, in the Siberian region a few km from the Pacific, the January average is around -50 ° C.

In the whole country, the summer months pass hopefully cool.
The Russian Federation is one of the most arid countries in the world. Nearly one-quarter of all the land receives an average of 500 mm of precipitation. Moreover, most damp areas do not have the warmth available for agriculture. The amount of precipitation varies in different ways.

Natural Resources 

Plant cover and animals: In the country with the largest territory in the world, it is seen that as the vegetation cover goes from north to south, the boundaries change to be determined by strict lines. On the northern coast, 164,400 km wide tundra brings a generation of waterfalls. On the lower part of it, there are forests from the coniferous trees that stretch 960-1120 km wide from the Baltic Sea to the Great Ocean. These forests are called taiga, and come from the pine, fir, spruce and birch trees. The next generation is the stepler. After that, the complexion circle comes. As it turns south, under the effect of climatic conditions, the vegetation becomes rather impoverished and becomes semi-desert.

A wide variety of plant coverings can be seen in mountainous regions. The Caucasus mountains, which determine the Georgia border, are covered with forests that cover the wintery topography of the region up to 2100 meters. There are extensive mountain pastures from this height. Common wild animals, lewings in the tundra, polar foxes and reindeer, badgers in Taygal, red hyenas, sable, black bear and fox, protection forest areas, wild cats, skunk; In the far east, there are leopards, tigers and bear. In the desert areas, yakau, lynx, jackal, gazelles and various birds, reptiles; On the steeps are various reptiles and antelopes.


The Russian Federation is a country rich in minerals. The world’s second largest coal producer, Kuzbass, Karaganda, Donbass and Perchora have large coal deposits. In Eastern Siberia iron, gold, mica, lead, zinc, copper, graphite, aluminum and diamond are important metals. Oil is being extracted in the Volga-Ural region and the Tyumen area in the Siberian Plain. There are also natural gas deposits in many regions of the country. While all mines are exported in sufficient quantities for the country, only tin production is not enough.

Population and Social Life 

Nations: The population of the Russian Federation is approximately 145,300,000. According to the area, the population is low. The population density is around 9 people and the population increase is 1%. 65% of the population live in cities.
The vast majority of the people of the Russian Federation bring the Slavs to the square. The most crowded part of the Slavic group is the Russians. The Russians bring about 80% of the total population of the country to the square. They live almost everywhere in the country. Ukrainians, White Russians and Poles are the other Slavic groups present.

The Turks are at the head of the non-Slavic group. Turks are also divided into different tribes. Bashkirs, Chuvash, Chechens, Tatars, and the Soviet Union are the Turkish sailors who remain in the Russian borders after they have disintegrated. The Tatars were originally Turkish and the latter were intermingled between Russians and Ukrainians. They live in the Volga region, Urals and South Siberia.


The languages ​​spoken in the country are rooted in five sources. These are the Slavic, Altaic, Indo-European, Ural and Caucasian groups. White Russians, Russians, Ukrainians and Poles speak slavic languages. The most important of the Altay group is the Turkic. Turkish is spoken of in some dialect differences between the existing lengths.


In the Russian Federation the population is generally Orthodox sect of Christianity. In the time of the Communist regime, hostility to religion was widespread. Religious rites have begun to be made freely. Most of the Turks are Muslim.


The cultural life of the Soviets, after the Revolution of 1917, has been changed. Communism took the place of the Tsarist era. For the communist goal, the principle of “every road is legitimate” has made civilization, morality and spirituality, mankind, prosperity and happiness forgetful, making a human animal a robot and a machine.

The absence of the right to property has dragged the person who was inclined to this to the reluctance and ambiguity. Art and literature, on the other hand, are very vulnerable, and some personalities and scholars who have become acquainted with them have tried to escape from the country. The Russian nations, deprived of the essentials of spirituality and sincerity, both remained spiritually and materially out of humanity, and their cultural and welfare levels remained low.

The communist education and training initiated after the communist revolt has become enormous in schools. Today, the literacy rate is 98%. High collecting facilities developed after 1970. In the theoretical sciences, powerful staffs are survived today, under the influence of political pressures.

Technical Studies 

The Russian Federation is in race with the US in space studies. Americans are far ahead of Russians in their Feza work and on their lunar journeys.

Much work has been done in the Russian Federation on atomic topics. The first reactor was run in 1954 and had a power of 5000 kW. In the last 10 years, the country has lagged far behind the technical side, and as a result, innovation movements have been initiated.


The Russian Federation is a country with a say in the world of sports. Spore is made big every year. Hopefully football, volleyball, wrestling and basketball are common. The symbol of the country is the bear.
Cities: Major major cities are Moscow, Leningrad, Gorki, Sverdlovsk, Novosibirsk, Kuybishey and Sverdlovsk.

The population of these cities is around 1.5 million. The capital city is Moscow. The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin (which refers to the fortified place) and it was built in the 15th century. It is the industrial center of the Leningrad region. Other cities with a population of around one million are: Chelyabinsk, Ersvon, Omsk, Perm, Ufa, Rostov, Volgograd.

Political Life 

The political regime of the Russian Federation was a communist dictator before the Soviet Union disintegrated. After the Soviet Union officially disbanded, a parliamentary regime based on multi-party and presidential systems was passed. The president of the state is elected by the people for a period of five years.

The head of state is also the chief commander of the armed forces and the president of the Security Council. The president has the authority to dissolve the parliament. The parliament comes from the 450 deputies. The parliament is elected by the semi-narrow regional electoral system and the other half by the proportional electoral system from the party lists.

There are also 178-member federal councils, which are formed from two representatives of the 89 member regions that have brought the Russian Federation to the festival. The Federation Council can not be dissolved by the president. The council approves the legislation and the president’s decisions on martial law.


The economy of the Russian Federation is based on agriculture, industry, forestry and animal husbandry. There is a great economic crisis in Russia and other republics established by the dissolution of the Soviet Union (1994).

Agriculture: Large Soviet territories seem to be advantageous for the country at first sight. But on the contrary, this and in addition, the extreme climate conditions and the lack of fertile lands are a serious problem of the country. There are few fertile lands in Russia. The fertile areas in the northern regions, if they receive precipitation, the precipitation season lasts very short. The economy is therefore weaker than the US economy and depends on the US in some areas.

Only about 10% of Soviet territories are available for cultivation. Existing cultivated areas, meadows, pastures and fruit-vegetable gardens can cover only 27% of the country. The main productive region of the country is in the middle and it can be described as “Efficient Triangle”. The base of the triangle is the Leningrad-Odessa line and the peak Altay Mountains. Siberia also has small areas. The main agricultural products are barley, rye, wheat, sugar beet, potato and sunflower.

Industry: Russian Federation, industrialized countries are among the developed countries. The main industrial fields are steel, machinery, machine tools, cement, paper, chemicals and automobiles. The development of the industry in the country has provided a great deal of mineral resources. About 40% of the world’s iron reserves are here. There are also rich coal and potassium salt deposits.

It has developed in the areas of iron and coal reserves, rather than heavy industry industry centers. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation is engaged in trade with the rest of the republics and all the world states. The fur industry has grown considerably in the country. Exports of fur including the Astragan (Karakul neck skin) are very important. Especially the sable and mink fur are kept very much.


There are pine, fir and oak in the European part of the country, and cedar, larch and fir forests on the Siberian side. Forestry has an important place in the economy. Approximately 20% of the world timber production belongs to the Russian Federation. More than 80% of the timber reserves are obtained from the Siberian region.


Animal husbandry is an important source of livelihood in Russia. Of course, cattle breeding is common in grasslands. Especially in the European territory of the country and in a part of western Siberia, milk production has developed in particular. Small cattle breeding and poultry farming are common.


Russian Federation, Atlas and the Greater Oceania because of its borders have large fishing fleets. While fishing in the Black Sea and Aral and Caspian Sea is not important, the best caviar is obtained from the Mersin fish caught in the Caspian Sea. Most of the fish caught annually comes from the North and Far East seas. Russia takes second place in the world after Japan in whale hunting.


The transportation network is very developed. Railway transport is more common than highway. In Russia, car braking and rent-a-car are very suitable addresses … In railways, line spacings are wider than world standards. Russian Airlines (Aeroflot) has the world’s largest transport network. However, their internal service is very low and the weight is given to the external services. Sea transport is quite good.


Russia was founded after the dissolution of the USSR was using the former USSR weapons and vehicles. However, the Russian Ar-Gesi, which gained momentum in 1998, produced new weapons. In particular, they established the world’s best quality missile system in Defense Systems. The Russian Armed Forces; Intercontinental-Long and Middle-range fuzies have been on the road recently in the province. Last summer Russia announced that a new missile test was successfully completed, but it did not give its name and information.

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Romania tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

Romania is an Eastern European country between 20 ° 15 ‘- 29 ° 42′ east longitudes and 43 ° 37 ’48 ° 16’ northern latitudes in the north-west of Turkey and in the north-east of the Balkan Peninsula. It is surrounded by the Black Sea, Ukraine and Moldova in the east, Ukraine in the north, Hungary and Yugoslavia in the west, and Bulgaria in the south.

The Thracian, a Hindu-European group, is known as the first people who lived on the territory of Romania. These are a branch of the Dogus BC. Between 800 and 300 BC he founded the Dakya State, headquartered in Transylvania under Burebista leadership. Between AD 106-271, the Romans invaded the people by invading the lands.

After the Ottoman Empire was founded in 1299, it soon became a world state. The Ottomans organized European expeditions, primarily to the Balkans, to spread Islam into Europe. Dovin in 1394, Belgrade in 1456, Vaslui in 1475, Schera campaign in 1476, wars of the Ottomans in the first step to Europe. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, two Romanian lands, Wallachia and Rodrigo, were under the Turkish sovereignty.

They acted according to the emrine of the Ottoman Sultan in military and diplomatic terms and gave annual tax. The administrators were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans. In fact, their derebeys wanted to stay in Ottoman rule to protect their ties from the attacks of the Europeans. The people of Wallachia and Voghdan were beside the Ottoman army against the other armies in the region consisting of Austrians, Russians, Tatars, Kazakhs and Polishes.

In 1679, instead of Şerban, the worshiper of Eflak, his nephew, Costantin Brincoveanu, passed. At this time, Dimitri of the Bulgarian Derebeyi. These two dervishes rebelled during the Ottoman-Russian War in 1711, helping Deli Petro. In this, the power of the Greek-speaking groups that migrated from Istanbul to the Balkans is great. They were influenced by the administrative life of Wallachia and Bogdan. On the basis of these rebellions and restlessness of the feudal lords of the Turkish administration for about a century, Wallachia and Bojdan thrones were put into a new system called “voyage”.

In this period, the Ottoman State began to take a pause. Towards the end of the 18th century, Russia increased its hostility towards the Ottoman Empire. With the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774, Russia gained some rights from the Ottomans, while at the same time gaining the authority to intervene in the affairs of these two venerable sisters. Although the control remained in the Ottomans, many commercial facilities were lost.

A year later Bukovina was left to Austria. In 1812, Besarabia came out of hand. After the Ottoman-Russian War of 1828-1829 until 1834, Wallachia and the Bulgarian entered Russia completely under the hegemony. Count Pavel Kiselev, supported by Russia, tried to remove the Ottoman civilization from the middle.

In 1859 the two provinces were united and in 1861 they were referred to as Romania. In 1877, Romania moved away from Turkish domination with the Berlin Treaty. After independence, it became a kingdom in 1878. In 1881, Carol became the first king of Romania. In 1886, Romania turned to a unicameral constitutional monarchical administrative system. After the First World War, the borders of Romania expanded.

After Basarabia and Bukovina, Banat and Transilvania were also seized. But not too long before, Basarabia and northern Bukovina were forced to leave Russia, which, as always, against the Ottomans they lived in prosperity for many years during the 1877-78 Ottoman-Russian War, helped them. In fact, South Dobruca was also abandoned in Bulgaria as a result of intense threats.

During the Second World War Marshla lon Antonescu attempted to unite with Germany against Russia. In 1944 Antonescu, leader of a military movement, was eliminated by Soviet entrances and King Michael, and Romania was beside Russia. Not long before Romania fell into communism. Although it became a People’s Republic in 1947, nationalization in all areas left it alone.

According to the new Constitution of 1965, Romania was no longer the People’s Republic and became a socialist country. In 1966, the perpetrators of the danger attempted to develop an independence movement against Russia. In 1970 and 1973, Romanian President Nicolai Ceausescu (Ceausescu) visited the United States. In 1976, a 10-year commercial agreement was signed with the United States to try to avoid Russia relatively. In 1982, Romania moved somewhat closer to the west, demanding the western countries to extend the repayment of their debts of around three billion dollars.

The first demonstrations in Romania began in late 1989, when the Communist regime was shaken sharply in the Eastern Bloc States. The bloody repression of the demonstrations led to increased tension throughout the country. After the Ordun was placed beside the rebellious people, Ceausescu, who wanted to escape from the country, was arrested and led to his case after being judged with his wife. The National Liberation Front, which undertook the administration, opened the way to a multi-party system by putting an end to the socialist regime. First free elections were held in April 1990.

Physical Structure 

The surface area of ​​Romania is about 237,500 km2. It is located on the Black Sea coast in Southeast Europe. Dobruca, the eastern region, is located along the Black Sea coast. Approximately two-thirds of the province is mountainous and hilly, while the remaining three are plagiarism and plain land. It forms the backbone of the East Carpathian country. Drawing a broad curve towards the southeast, it stretches about 97 km and then returns to the west of the country where the Transylvania Alps take the name.

Thus, the Tansilian Plateau in the northern middle of the country seems to have been walled. These mountains are generally worn and low. The altitudes are about 900 m to 1800 m. The highest place in the country is the Negoi Tepes in the Tansilian Alps with a height of about 2548 m. The Transylvania Alps are higher than the Carpathians, and their extreme peaks are about 2500 m high. The Romanian mountains are covered with forests. The highlands of some mountains are filled with meadows and glacier lakes.

The eastern and southern skirts of the Carpathians are the Bulgarian and Wallachia spans, extending along the length of the Prut River in the east and the Danube River in the south. Located in the middle of the mountain arc, the Transylvanian Basin is a high spring with an average height of about 450 m. This region is divided in part by the wide and deep valleys of the rivers Mureş and Somşş.

Located in the eastern direction of the country, Dobruca is Romania’s only coastal zone. Dobruca is a part of the Black Sea region of Tuna with a coast of about 290 km. The north of the zone is low and swampy, the south is a sandy beach area and steep rocky. Apart from Dobruca, the country can be further divided into four regions: Wallachia, Bogdan, Banat and Transylvania.

It occupies one third of the country and is located between East Carpathians and Prut River, which draws the Moldavian border. The important city of the region is Iaşi. Wallachia, the capital city of the country, lies between the Transylvania Alps and the Bulgarian border. Cluj-Napoca is the headquarters of Transylvania, which is located in the very middle region of the country.

The part based on the Hungarian and Yugoslavian borders is the Banat region with its central Timişoara and flat, swampy and fertile plateau view. It is Canstanta (Konstanta), which is the center of Dobruca, which is located to the east of the country. The middle of the region starting from the northern Danube delta is filled with lakes. The southern region is known as the “Romanian Riviera” and there are many beaches.


Romania’s climate is a typical black climate with moderate humidity. Climate varies widely, depending on the seasons and regions. Summer months are arid and hot, winter months are hard and snowy. As the autumn season takes a long time, Spring will show itself very briefly. January temperature average is about -3 ° C and June temperature average is 23 ° C.

The precipitation of the country is almost the same everywhere, while eastern regions and mountainous areas receive slightly more precipitation than others. In the mountainous areas, annual precipitation average is about 1270 mm and 380 mm in Delta region. In the whole of the country, the annual precipitation rate is around 715 mm. It is possible to come across droughts during spring and summer months.

Natural Resources 

Four of the country is forested. Only a tenth of the country’s surface area is formed from bare mountains and water. Nearly one third of the soil is available for planting.
The topographic diversity of Romania is remarkably balanced, attracting attention with its wide plains, numerous rivers and waterways, fertile soils and suitable climate.

There are extensive meadow areas in the dense forested mountains. This gives wide opportunities for livestock, especially sheep. Frequent forests are a source of lumber, and hill skirts are a region full of vineyards and fruit gardens.

Mountains and skirts are also rich in iron and salt deposits. Moreover, it has about two thousand kinds of mineral resources. Romania is the most oil producing country in Europe after Russia. In addition, it is also very rich in terms of methane gas (ural gas), which is rarely found in the world. The other underground riches that are found in the world are: Coal, lignite, iron ore, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, copper, lead, zinc, silver, gold, antimony, bauxite, mercury and uranium.

The main animals that grow in the country are sheep, cattle and pigs in general. The Doobruca region is very rich in fish varieties, bird species and wild animals. About 60 kinds of fish and more than 300 kinds of birds are grown. There are more wolves, kakum, wild boar and wild rabbits than wild animals.

Romania has a rich and permanent river network. Its main rivers are Tuna, Prut, Mureş, Somess, Iolomita, Siret and Olt. Hydropower potential from most rivers and waterway access from Danube and Prut. The Danube River draws the borders of the country Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Russia and is divided into three branches to the east. Then the marsh poured into the Black Sea by bringing the Tuna Delta to the waterfall.

Population and Social Life 

The population of the country is around 23.168.000. The population density is about 94. Annual population growth is around 1%. 88% of the population is Romanian, 8% is Hungarian and 2% is German. Almost half of the total population live in city life. There are also Russians, Tatars, Turks, Jews, Bulgarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies and Serbo-Croat-Slovenian groups.

80% of the population is Orthodox, 10% is Catholic.In addition, some Muslim, was Jewish, and there is also a Calvinist Lütherist. Romanian is the official language. Hungarian and German are also widely spoken.
Social structure of the population after the decision of the country from communism after the Second World War changed a lot, there is no private property and free will. A big jolt to spend the communist regime in Romania in 1989 and was also reflected in the end of the socialist regime in the country.

The rate of literacy in the country is 98%. 70% of the young people are in school life. The high standard of living in the country, which caused the deaths of 1,300 people in 1977 to hit a heavy blow to the construction and industrial sectors of Bucharest earthquake and foodstuffs has led to a serious crisis in the economy of failure.

Large portions of the population are forming as the old Thracian origin of Romanians, income from MINUTE arm. Later, they gelmesiyleromalılaş of Roman rule. Romanians living under Ottoman rule for many years, and an’ane the Turkish customs, way of life and the influence of the justice system, they get a lot of the Ottoman cultural potential and continued them until today.

People’s marmalade in the Turkish food prepared today, soup, chicken soup, wrap, grilled, kebab, carp, cheese made from sheep’s milk, bacon, sweet caviar and Turkish styles are traces remaining from this period. Also tea and Turkish coffee, between the habits of Romanians girmiştir.romanya is başşehribükreş is the most advanced in the country. Other important cities they are; Brasov, Timisoara and Constanta are.

Political Life 

Romania, before Soviet Russia adopted the model of development. However, also he entered into friendly relations with western countries. On this occasion he was able to maintain its autonomy gained much difficulty. Front of the IMF became a member in 1971. The amount of debt passed $ 15 billion in 1981. Gorbachev and the USSR began glastnost surrounds the whole of Eastern Europe (renewal) Romania was affected by the move. To prevent this, the then-President Nicole Ceausescu (Ceausescu) toughens management more repression and violence.

Timisoara made in 1989 shows a gory suppressed. The Army took place on the side of people. Ceausescu was overthrown. Captured while trying to flee with his wife, they shot the political activity. Thus it ended the socialist regime in Romania. A National Salvation Front Council (MKCK) was established. Temporarily to the Presidency of the Council

of Ion Iliescu was introduced. The first free elections passed, the decision was taken. April 20, 1990 in free elections held at the IR. MKCK in Iliescu’s presidential vote, won the majority of took over the management. Romania so through a parliamentary system, began implementing a free market economy.


80% of the country’s economy is based on agriculture, industry and 8%. 90% of the national territory is suitable for cultivation. But Romania’s national income from agriculture but covered a section close to 40%. Country is one of the world’s leading producer of cereal state.

The most important agricultural products such as corn, barley, wheat, sugarcane, grapes and fruit are. Furthermore, oats, rye, vegetables, sunflower, soybean, tobacco, cotton, hemp and flax are also grown. Sheep, cattle and poultry, it is common to train. Fishing is an important source of income, mostly bearded sturgeon and freshwater fish fished.

Romania is the world’s fourteenth largest country in terms of advanced metalworking and machine-building. More tractors, locomotives, electrical appliances and equipment is carried out via drilling. Industry mainly is based on iron and steel. Furthermore, chemical industry, construction materials, concrete, wood and wood industries, food processing, textile and nonwoven fabrics, clothes and shoes imalatçılık, rubber goods and petroleum industry are available.

The main extracted from mines in the country ; coal, iron, oil, methane, bauxite, manganese, lead, zinc, gold and silver. Romania is the world’s sixth-tenth of salt and natural gas producers. However, natural gas production remains dependent on imports of coal and iron.

The country’s currency is Leu. Tourism is an important source of income in the country. It makes 16% of the imports from Russia. Other imports from countries Germany, USA and Iraq. 18% of Romania’s total exports still transmits Russia. We also export to Germany.

Romania , hydroelectric power plants and waterways is a suitable country in terms of transportation. Founded in 1972 between Yugoslavia and Romania over the Danube “Iron Gate” gate, it is one of five major projects of this type in the world. Also Bistrita, Olt, and the Siret river hydroelectric power plants on the kurulmuştur.romanya car king, and rent a car perfectly suitable addresses.

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Portugal tourist attractions, restaurants and delicious meals

Portugal is a country in the Iberian peninsula in the southwestern tip of Europe, surrounded by Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. Between 36 ° 58 ‘and 42 ° 09’ north latitudes, between 6 ° 11 ‘and 9 ° 30’ west longitudes, Portugal has a length of 560 km from north to south and 215 km in width. The Azores and Madeira Islands group in the North Atlantic are part of Portugal.

The country occupied with Iberian tribes (Lusitanien) in early ages, BC. In the 1st century it became a province of the Romans. Then the Vandals, Süevler (a German tribe) were invaded by the Visigoths from the 5th to the 8th century. In 711, the country was overthrown by Muslims. The Andalusian Umayyads (756-1031), Teva’if-i Mülûk (11th century) Islamic states were founded and dominated the region. Towards the tenth century, Terra Portucallis was named for the region between the Duro and Minho rivers. Portucallis has come to fruition from the combination of Latin Portas (port) and Calle (fortress).

Portugal became an independent kingdom in 1143. The borders have expanded with the wars he has made against the Meriniler. Towards the middle of the thirteenth century, today’s Portuguese borders are completed. Portuguese seafarers have spread around the world in the 15th century. In the next century, Asia, Africa and South America set up a large colonial empire in the Americas, holding most of the trade between Europe and the East. In the war that opened up to the cities of Morocco in 1598, when the Portuguese visited a heavily fortified city, the empire collapsed suddenly. Taking advantage of the weakening of the country, Spain, Portugal in 1580, adding to its territory, until 1640 ruled.

In 1688 Portugal became again independent with the Treaty of Lisbon. But since Portugal lost its former glory, a treaty of alliance signed with Britain in 1703, which lasted until the 20th century, was signed. He had to fight Napoleon in the 19th century when he was allied with the British. While the country was in war with France, in 1811 the king and his family fled to Brazil. During this period, the empire began to collapse. When Brazil proclaimed its independence in 1822, Portugal lost its only major source of wealth.

The whole of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century became the period of economic and political instability for Portugal. Fierce partisan struggles, civil wars pushed the country into turmoil. In 1908 the king was assassinated and two years later he was declared a republic in 1910. The sixteen-year period of the republic was rather unstable, in which forty-eight governments were established and at least twenty-five coup attempts were made. In 1926 the army took over the administration and forty-eight years the country was dictated by General Franko.

On April 25, 1974, when the government was removed from work as a result of a coup d’état made by young officers, General Antonio took control of a military junta under the leadership of Spinola. President Spinola has been forced to step down at the end of September of the same year, as a result of pressure from leftist officers. In April 1975, the Soviet-backed communist party increased its influence, despite the democratic parties winning 64% of the votes. Banks, insurance and industry were nationalized. The goal of the socialist transition in the new Constitution, which entered into force in 1976, was also clearly demonstrated. In the general elections held after the new Constitution, no party could gain majority.

Socialist Party President Mário Soares founded a minority government. Chief of General Staff Antánio Ramalho Eones was elected to the presidency. The government headed by Mário Soares resigned in December 1977. The coalition government established in January and a number of subsequent coalitions were short-lived. After the elections in 1980, the center-right Democratic Alliance came to power in large part.

This government made major changes in the constitution and opened the way to civilian governance. In 1982, the President took the decision of early elections on the governing government. In the elections held in April 1983, the Portuguese Socialist Party, which came to the status of the first party, formed a coalition with the Social Democratic Party. Portugal was taken to EEC on 1 January 1986. Soares was elected the first civilian president in February 1986 after 60 years of engagement. The increase in the number of seats in the Social Democratic Party in the elections held in July 1987 provided the coalition government established to be stable. In the 1991 elections, the Social Democratic Party again maintained its first place.

Physical Structure

Portugal is mostly covered with land at low and medium altitudes. More than 70% of soils are below sea level from 400 meters below sea level. The Tagus River country divides into two distinct regions. The north of Tagus River is largely mountainous. Especially in the north of the Douro River, 90% of the land is over 400 metric tons.

The great plains are split with deep valleys. In some places the mountains exceed 50 km inland and 910 m in altitude. There is a triangular coastal rubble between the Douro and Tagus rivers, and there are several large valleys on the inner side. Serra de Estrela, which stretches towards Spain, reaches a height of 1991 meters in Torre de la Torre (Portugal’s highest peak).

Other major rivers outside Tagus and Douro that poured into the Atlantic Ocean from this area are Minho, Mondego and Zezere, which form part of the Spanish border to the north. Approximately 60% of the land south of Tagus River is below 200 m. This is a region covered with undulating plains and low-springs. High hills are rare and only Serra de Sao Mamede has a mountain range of over 900 m. The only major river in this region is the Guadiana River, flowing in the north-south direction, bringing it to a wide valley and pouring it into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern tip of the country.


To the north of Portugal is temperate (temperate), to the south a warm climate. During the winter, the cold winds are bringing rain from the west. But as summer approaches, there is a warm dry air wave from the south and very little rain.

As the north part has a colder clime than the south, most of you are exposed to ocean winds blowing from the west, and more rainfall occurs. As you travel southward through the Tagus River, the precipitation diminishes and the hot-dry summer lasts for a long time. Temperatures on the coast of Paris are almost the same everywhere. Temperatures in Lisbon, located in the middle of the western coast, range from about 7 ° C to 15 ° C in January and 18 ° C to 28 ° C in July.

Natural Resources 

Around 35% of Portugal is forested. 90% of the forests are covered with oak trees. Other important trees are chestnut, fig, carob, and almond. Portugal ranks first in the world in making bottled mushrooms. Most wild animals are small species such as wild rabbits and foxes. Deer is found in mountainous regions. The underground riches are tungsten, copper, iron, marble, granite and slate.

Population and Social Life 

In Portugal, which has a population of 10.372.000, people do not show differences in terms of ethnic structure. Most of the Portuguese are slightly shorter than Europe average, with black eyes and black hair. The people who brought the people of today’s country to the fountain came to blossom from the people who came to the Iberian Peninsula at different times. These are the Celts, the Phoenicians, the Cartagans, the Romans, the Jews, the German tribes, the Arabs and the Berbers.

The Portuguese have been migrating to many parts of the world since the 15th century. The government seriously prohibited immigration in the 1960s in order to preserve the workforce. However, thousands of young people, most of them young, continue to leave the country without law, fleeing to France and other Western European countries for more wages. At the same time, villages have migrated to city centers, which are new industries. The most important city is Lisbon, located in the middle of the west coast and its population is 2,063,000. Other major cities are Oporto, Amadora, Coimba, Borreiro, Braga, Almada and Coimbra.

The official language of the country is Portuguese, and the differences do not pose any difficulty for the people to deal with each other. 98% of the population is Roman Catholic, but there are a few thousand Protestants and a small number of Jews.
In Portugal, primary school is a junior and starts from 6 years old. In the country where the literacy rate is 70%, the high tuition is made in Lisbon, Oporto and Coimbra Universities, Lisbon Technical and Catholic University and in different institutes.

Political Life 

By the new constitution enacted in April 1976, eighty-eight administrative districts were settled into a socialist administration. The main governing bodies are the president, the revolutionary council and the government. The Revolutionary Council came from four commanders and 14 officers elected from the armed forces. Portugal is a member of NATO. The elections in 1980 were largely center-right Democratic Alliances.

The new government has made many changes to the Constitution, opening the way to civilian administration. The elections held in October 1985 won the Social Democratic Party, which defended the free market economy. In February 1986 Mário Soares won the presidential election and became the first civilian president after a 60-year career. In the same year, Portugal was elected to the EEC. With the amendment made in 1989, expressions about socialism were removed from constitution.


Portugal is one of the least developed countries in Europe and the level of life in the country is low. 31% of the working population works in agriculture, 35% in industry and trade, and 34% in various services. The manufacturing and construction industry provides more than double the gross national income. Agriculture, on the other hand, provides only one third of the gross national income.

In Portugal, food industry, textiles, furniture and the construction sector have an important place in the past. With regard to the food industry, there are milling, sugar, fish canned and olive oil factories. The main products of the textile industry are cotton, twisted wool yarn and elbised. Footwear production has also improved in relation to the clothing industry. Forest wealth; paper clay, paper, bottle mushroom, pitch, resin, naft oil and especially in the production of furniture.

One of the most important aspects of new industries is electronic machinery and auxiliary components. The establishment of petroleum refineries ensured that the petrochemical industry developed. Small diameter iron and steel industry is available. Shipbuilding and ship repair facilities made Portugal the first in Europe in this sector.

Approximately 55% of Portugal’s land is arable. Most crops of arable soils (wheat and rye) are grown. But the yield is low because most of the land is unproductive and subject to erosion. The labor force is inadequate, especially in the south. The country has to import wheat and other grains.
In Portugal, hanging gardens cover 10% of the cultivated land.

Olive oil production in the country is also advanced. As fruit trees, apples and pears grow in the northern half of the country, and oranges grow in the south. In spite of the wide variety of mineral deposits in portugal, most of them are not operated at the level requested by insufficient level and inadequate funds. Important minerals extracted are tungsten, iron, sulphurous copper, marble, granite and slate.

Portugal imports all of the petroleum that it needs. It exports eighty twisted wool yarn, fabric, dress, canned fish, bottle mushroom, paper clay and paper, electric tools. It makes up with the Commonwealth of Europe countries, which are the majority of the Portuguese trade.

The roads in Portugal were 51,953 km. 44,680 km of this is covered with asphalt. The railways are 3600 km long, compared to other Western European countries. Air transport is provided by 13 airports. The Portuguese trade fleet is relatively large in size and has a capacity of 750,000 tons.


The Portuguese cuisine is a rich cuisine with a variety of recipes used in rice, potatoes, bread, meat, seafood and fish, as well as spanish cuisine. It is said that the Portuguese are especially fond of food made from Cuban bacon, and in Portugal these dishes called bacalhau are cooked in 365 different ways, different for each day of the year. Pastéis de Bacalhau, Bacalhau à Brás and Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá are the most popular recipes. Other fish dishes include grilled sardines and Caldeirada.

Cakes and pastries based on old and heavy dishes are common throughout the country. Lisbon’s Pastéis de Nata and Aveiro’s Ovos-Moles are sweet and their kits are very popular. Porto’s Francesinha ‘s is Portugal ‘s unique fast-food style. Other dishes include Feijoada, made with meat and sausage pieces and dry beans, served with rice made from white rice, and Cozido à Portuguesa and Espetadas made with the scalding of meat, rice, potatoes and other vegetables. Breakfast is important, and satisfying seafood is breakfast choices.

Portuguese wines have been sent out of the country borders since the time of the Romans. The Romans kept Portugal identical to the god of wine and entertainment, Bacchus. Many wine varieties, which are well-known by wine lovers today, have won international awards. Many well-known Portuguese wines are among the best wines in the world.


There are many options for shopping in Lisbon, but in Lisbon you have a mystical atmosphere for shopping and it is not possible to find markets set up in the squares. Instead, there are large shopping malls, boutiques open to famous streets.

Especially Santa Catarina Street is one of the places that attract many visitors from Lzibon. There are a lot of boutiques and shops in the lineup. One of the most famous shopping malls is Marco Polo Shopping Center. In this shopping center, you have a chance to find a lot of shops you are looking for.

Porto wines are at the very beginning of the gifts that you can recall your trip to Lisbon in the most beautiful way and bring your loved ones as souvenirs from this city. Taking a bottle from these wines and taking it to your country will remind you of your pleasant nights in Lisbon and you will enjoy the pleasure of having your friends taste different. Outside of the wines, you can find objects such as dishware made from china, among other products you can buy.

Places to visit 

Lisbon, a city that dates back to ancient times, carries traces of many different cultures. However, due to earthquakes in this city, he lost many works.

The city is composed of the Balem Kulesi, Köpage Ranküleri, mixed, winding, sloping road and many hills.

Belem Tower: Belem Tower is a building similar to the Tower of the Girl in Istanbul. This structure, which is in the sea, was built to observe the marines that used to be in the past. When you go to Belem Tower, do not forget to see the parks, the museums in this neighborhood.

Belem Coach Museum: A fantastic place to take you to the fairytale land, a museum exhibiting phaetons used in royal times. This museum is literally a sign of how wealth and splendor lived in those days.

Köpage Ranker: Lisbon is divided into two by the Tagus River. There are two Dog Rank on this river. The most famous of these jump rankers is the 25 Abril Köpage Ranküs. Lisbon’s Dog Rankings have become a symbol that goes beyond being a dog Ranking linking a colony and adding a lot of beauty to the beautiful view of Lisbon.

Jesus Sculpture: One of the most remarkable structures in Lisbon is the Statue of Jesus Christ, which Brazil presents to Portugal. This sculpture is on top of a high building. With the elevators which are very famous in Lisbon, you can go to the top of this tall building and watch all of Lisbon through the arms of the Jesus statue.

Elevator (Elevador): There are many different elevators in Lisbon. Elevators located in this city are not located inside buildings but outside. And these elevators are often used for tourist purposes. If you want to watch the city from the top in the most beautiful way, you can go to the elevators. The lift, which was built in 1911 on the street of Santa Justa, is the most famous of elevators in Lisbon.

Oceanarium: Located in Lisbon, this aquarium is like a sign of how much the Portuguese have taken to the maritime past. In this giant aquarium you can get a chance to see many underwater creatures together. The ocean is divided into two, you can feel as if you are walking in the ocean. When you visit the Oceanarium. The most remarkable part of this aquarium is the sharks.

Royal palace: The china used in interior architecture is quite striking, as well as the exterior architecture of this palace, which has been used as the summer residence of the kings for many years. The tile designs used in many buildings in Portugal add a distinctive feature to Lisbon.
Jeronimos Monastery: Built in 1496 by King I. Manuel, this building is among the symbols of Lisbon. The various jewels used in the construction of the monastery give this building a rich image.


Nightlife in Lisbon is usually experienced in restaurants in the Port region. Here you can hear the most beautiful melodies of Portugal’s local music, Fado music. Apart from these regional melodies, you can find many bars and night clubs in world standards in Lisbon. In these spaces you have the chance to listen to all kinds of music from jazz to popular music.

But in Lisbon, of course, fun is experienced at Fado nights. Fado music has some pathetic melodies. Fado means “destiny” as a word. This music has longing and longing feelings. The loveliness that does not come and go is a sad music that is said for the wives who do not return to the sea journey. Although the Fado music is so sad, the entertainments that accompany it are quite enjoyable. The most popular beverage in Lisbon in the night life is the world famous Porto wines. In Portugal, rent-a-car and rent-a-car are very suitable addresses.

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