The capital of Jordan is Amman, with an area of 92,300 km2, population of 5,153,378, official language Arabic, religious Islam and currency Dinar. Jordan is surrounded by Israel in the west, Syria in the north, Iraq in the north, Iraq in the north and Saudi Arabia in the south. In addition to hotel and board services, there are addresses in rent acar v car hire in the country which is a holiday paradise.
The history of historic Jordan dates back to ancient times. The first states established in the region are Gilead, Amman, Moab and Edom. B.C. In the thirteenth century the children of Israel ruled the region. This ruling BC 721 was ended by the Assyrians. Asur domination Medlerin BC In 612, it ended with the destruction of the state. B.C. In 587 the region was under Babylonian rule. B.C. In 332, he captured the area of Alexander the Great. Later, the region became under the dominance of Ptolemaios and Selevkos respectively. B.C. Between the years 64-63 the Romans seized the region. After Rome was divided into two, the region was in the hands of Byzantium. Today’s Jordanian lands were conquered by Muslims in the time of Hazrat al-Hakhar, and many of the people entered Islamic religion. Emevi, Abbasi, Seljuk, Eyyubi and Mamluk were dominant respectively.
Jordan became part of the Ottoman State during the reign of Sultan Yavuz Selim Khan (1512-1520) (1516). At the end of the First Civil War, Jordan, who had lived under Ottoman justice since the age of 400, entered the mandate rule of England in 1920. In 1921, Emir Sharif Abdullah founded a semi-independent emirate on the eastern side of Jordan River.
These lands included two thirds of Palestine. In 1946, the United Kingdom recognized Jordan’s independence in accordance with the Länder Treaty resolutions. The Zionists and the Arabs were claiming to Palestine, which was then under the British mandate. Britain took the UN’s plan to share Palestine. The plan was rejected by the Arab States and Palestinians. When the mandate regime came to an end in May 1948, the Jordanian army came to the aid of the Palestinians in the war between the State of Israel and the Arab states.
Jordan occupied the territory of Jerusalem and the western side of the Jordan River. Malik Abdullah officially annexed the occupied lands to the Emirate in 1950. But on July 20, 1951, Emir Abdullah was killed by British hired killers in Jerusalem. Instead, his son Talal passed. But since Talal was sick, he left his throne to his son Hussein. Emir Hussein began to refer to it in May 1953.
Jordan lost all of the land it earned in 1948 in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. 6,000 people lost. At the end of the war, Jordanian economy collapsed. Meanwhile, the Palestine Liberation Organization (FKT), established in 1964, chose Jordan as its home base during operations against Israel and was in danger of becoming a state within the state. The FKT’s attacks on Israel led Israel to do missions that put Jordan in great disaster. In 1971, Emir Hussein withdrew the FTC from the country despite the repudiation of Arab countries.
Jordan did not participate in the 1973-1974 Arab-Israeli War. But in 1978, the Egyptian-Israeli camp united with the majority of Arab countries without rejecting the David Treaty. Jordan became the first Arab country to cross diplomatic relations with Egypt in March 1979. He changed this policy after 1984. During the Iran-Iraq War that began in 1980, Jordan became the main weapon source of Iraq.
Jordan, which opposed Iraq’s Kuwait occupation in 1989, supported Iraq on America’s move against Iraq. Physical Structure The Jordanian soil is mainly composed of a high desert and a steep plateau. Most of the land has a height of 600 to 900 m above sea level, and in some places it exceeds 1500 m. The country is an extension of the Great Arabian Plateau.
Jordan has a shore of 25 km in the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea. From the north to the south, the Jordan River Valley, Lut Lake and Vadi-al-Araba cut the western part of the country and the Jordanian lands are below the sea level. The width of the valley ranges from 16 to 23 km and leans against steep cliffs at its edges.
Many small rivers are spilling into the Jordan River and Lut Lake, many of which are dry in the summer. Now the land west of the Jordan River, under the Israeli occupation, is fertile and is lower than the eastern side. Fourth of the land east of the river is desert. Most of the places near the Syrian border are covered with erupted lavas. Climate A climate similar to the Mediterranean climate prevails in Jordan.
The winters are rainy and green. Especially high places are colder than lows. In other seasons, there is more extreme temperature and drought than the lowlands. Temperatures in the Jordan valley rise to 49 ° C in summer. The average annual rainfall in the oval on the eastern side of the valley is about 200 mm. The amount of precipitation in the western part of the country is between 380 and 640 mm per year. Near Lake Lut, rainfall is rather low, about 127 mm per year.
Natural Resources There is no significant vegetation cover in Jordan, and most of it is covered with deserts. The most important underground riches of the country are phosphate and potash. The largest phosphate beds are Vadiel-Hasa and immediately north of Amman. Potash resources on the Dead Sea are in the first place in the world. Other than these, copper deposits with commercial value were found near Aqaba.
Population and Social Life 62% of Jordanian people with a population of 3,700,000 live in cities, 35% live in villages and 3% live in nomads. The major cities of the country are the Amman, the capital city with a population of 1,500,000 and the Irbid with a population of 634,200. There is constant migration to cities. The government is looking for measures to prevent this, providing greater services to villagers and bedouins, and recognizing greater economic opportunities.
The vast majority of Jordanians are Arabs. After the Israelis settled west of the Jordan River, the largest minority group is around 250,000 Circassians and Chechens. These are the Caucasus, which was settled by the Ottomans in Jordan in the 19th century when Russia invaded Caucasia and played an important role in the economic and social life of Jordan. Other minority groups are Assyrians and Armenians living in the west of the River Nehru. There are also a small number of Kurds, Turks, Iranians and Jews in the country.
Ethnic minorities have adapted to the people of Jordan and the vast majority speak Arabic or know Arabic other than their own language. Islam is the official religion of the state. Muslims constitute 93% of the population and 5% of the Christians. The rest of the population is Bahai, Jewish, and Druze. 58% of Jordanian people are literate.
Higher education institutions are the Jordan University founded in Amman in 1962 and Yermuk University in Irbid in 1976. Mute University and Âlibeyt University, which was established in 1993, also have various private universities. Political Life Jordan is an emirate country. Emir is the Hashemite dynasty established by Abdullah bin Hussein, the first commander of Jordan.
The Legislative Assembly, which enshrines the laws, comes from a 30-member senate and 60 members of the House of Representatives. Senate members are appointed by Emir for four years. Members of the Representative Assembly are also serving for four years and come to work at the election.
Eight vilayets have been set up in Jordan, three on the west side of Jordan River and five on the east side. Jordan has been a member of the United Nations since 1955. Economy Jordanian economy is largely dependent on external assistance. Today, this aid comes from oil-producing Arab countries. Agriculture, the backbone of the economy, has been greatly influenced by Israel’s occupation of one-third of its fertile land.
Agriculture provides 7 to 8% of non-national income. Jordan is not self-sufficient in foodstuffs. However, it tries to balance the cost of imported products by raising high export crops worthy of watering in soils. In the watered lands and in the fruit gardens many fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, citrus fruits, bananas, figs, grapes, walnuts are grown. Where dry agriculture is made, especially cereals and olives, especially wheat and barley, are grown. The main animals of the country are sheep, goats and cows. Energy and water constraints limit economic development.
Textiles, cement and food industries have developed. Tourism is the source of income that provides the most foreign exchange to the country and constitutes 16% of the gross national income. Almost 80% of the tourists come from the Middle East. Jordan has a large foreign trade deficit. The country trades mostly with Saudi Arabia. Agricultural products and phosphate; The Middle East is exported to India and Japan.
The main materials and consumer goods are imported from United Germany, Italy and Japan. Jordan highways 6500 km. It is 4745 km long and it is paved. The Hijaz railway has been rebuilt. It has been extended to the phosphate mines and Aqaba to connect with the main line connected to the Syrian railways. Akabe has a completely modern and developing port. Amman, Aqaba and Zizya have international airports.