Chile is an independent state located on the southwest coast of the American continent. Chile is located between the Pacific Ocean in the west and south, Argentina in the east, Bolivia in the north, and Peru in the north. It is located between 67 ° and 75 ° west longitudes at 18 ° and 56 ° south latitudes. Northern Chile was in the reigns of the Incas until the conquest of the Spaniards in 1536-40 . The Araucanian natives in the south resisted until the end of the 19th century. In 1541, the Spaniards set up Santiago, the present capital city, to make Chile a colony.
Revolutions in France and America led to reforms and then independence movements. Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 provided the opportunity for the uprising. After the struggle between 1810-18, Chile gained its independence from Spain.
After independence, Chile was unstable because it was governed by internal conflicts, foreign wars and governments with widely varying political views. In 1879 the dispute with Bovliya and Peru over the rich nitrate deposits in the north ended with the Pacific War. When Bolivia and Peru were defeated in 1884, rich mineral deposits remained in Chile. For more than 50 years, border disputes with Argentina continued until 1902.
Chile remained neutral in the First World War. In the Second World War, in April 1945, he declared war on Japan. He joined the United Nations as a founding member in July of the same year. In 1964, the government gradually began to nationalize the foreign mines.
In 1970, first in Latin America, the socialist Salvador Allende became a Marxist president. Allende hastened the nationalization movements. In the three years of Marxist Allende’s rule, Chile’s economy has become much worse. The strike initiated by the truck drivers spread throughout the country. Housewives poured out on empty pans. Chilean strikes have become an anarchy and terrorist country.
In 1973, the Chilean Armed Forces took office with a coup. Allende died during the bombing of the presidential palace by airplanes. Military administration continued until 1983. According to the Constitution of 1980, General Pinochet was accepted to be president of the Chilean state for up to 1989 years and to remain in office with great authority.
Demonstrations, strikes and sabotages re-accelerated as the Pinochet administration failed to correct the Chilean economy. Those who struggled with Pinochet were Allende supporters, Marxists and Communists. Allende’s political and military relatives manage anarchy and terrorism in Chile from outside Chile. The 1989 Christian Democratic Party member Patricio Aylwin won the presidential election. Pinochet, who transferred to Presidency Patricia Aylwin, returned to serve as Chief of Staff. Chile has not come fully stable yet (January 1994).
Chile stretches 4200 kilometers along the Pacific coast, between the ocean in the west and the high hills of the Andes in the east, with an average of 180 km wide. The country is divided into three very different regions: Northern Chile, Central Chile and Southern Chile. Northern Chile extends from the Peru border to the city of La Serena. In this region is the Atacama Desert, one of the most arid places in the world, and the highest point of the country, Ojos del Salado Hill (6880 m).
Central Chile extends from La Serena to Chiloé Island and is the most important region of the country. The largest part is the center vantage between Santiago and Oncepción. There are many lakes in the south of Temuca City, and volcanoes with snow on all seasons. South Chile extends from the island of Chiloé to the Horn Burning Point, the southernmost point of America. This is a large scale mountainous area.
The climate in Chile is quite different from the regions. In northern Chile, the climate is fairly dry and almost no rain falls in the Atacama Desert. Desert conditions continue to the south until Caldera. The amount of precipitation is 141 mm. From La Serena, the precipitation increases steadily to the south. The annual rainfall in Valdivia reaches 2707 mm.
The maximum rainfall is 5380 mm in Bahia Felix, and South Chile is one of the world’s heaviest rainfalls. A cold and humid climate prevails in the region. The annual average temperature drops from 4 ° C in the latitude range of 10 ° from north to south. Thus, the mean temperature of 18 ° C on the northern border drops to 6 ° C on the southern border.
About one-fourth of Chilean soil is covered with forest. Most of the forests come from the hardwood trees. The main wild animals found in Chile are puma, wolf, deer and wild cat. The country has a lot of underground wealth. The main minerals are copper, molybdenum, silver, nitrate, iodine, iron, coal, gas, gold, cobalt, zinc, mangenese, borate, mica, mercury, salt, sulfur and marble. Copper constitutes 10% of the amount exported and iodine represents half.
Population and Social Life
16,136,137 (60th place) The majority of Chile’s population (81%) lives in cities. The largest city is the Great Santiago with a population of 3.800.000, the other important cities are Vinaedel Mor, Valparaiso and Concepción.
Sixty-two percent of the population are hybrids that come from the combination of the Spaniards and the locals, 25% are Spaniards, and 5% are locals. There are also many Germans in the south of the center vineyard, and some Italian, English and French in the Santiago-Valparaiso area.
Spanish is spoken in Chile. Approximately 95% of the population is Catholic. There is also an Orthodox in the country. In Chile there is a learning requirement for all children aged 7 to 15 years. The literacy rate is 90%. It is made up of two colleges and five private universities with high college status. Universities are very active in the political arena as they are in all other Latin American countries.
In 1973, General Pinochet ruled with a military coup in order to prevent the communists from having power in Chile. He forbade the activities of the pro-Moscow Communist Party. From 1973 until 1989, the country was governed by a government that had come to the fore from most soldiers. Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin won the election in 1989 and became President of the Republic. In recent years, communists have been infiltrating churches, universities and trade unions and making bloody demonstrations against the government.
According to the Constitution, which was enacted in 1981, the Congress, which is a legislative body, comes to the two councils. 38 of the Senate’s 48 members are appointed by the president, while 38 are elected by the people. All 120 members of the House of Representatives are elected by the public. Chile is a member of the United States of America and the United States of America.
The Chilean economy is essentially mining dependent. Mining products bring about 80% of the country’s export revenues. The country’s industry is related to steel, textiles and forest products. The Chilean industry is expensive, and the Latin American Free Trade Association, where the member is a member, weakens the competitive power of the country.
Mechanization in farming and farmers’ tools are not enough. On the other hand, agriculture is largely aimed at trading. The main crops are cereals, rice, beans, potatoes, peas and grapes. Chile is one of the most important forest products in Latin America. But the forest industry is not strong enough to operate with total potential. Fishing in the country is in good condition.
The main export items of Chile are copper, iron ore, nitrate, iodine, wool, rice, beans, fresh fruit and fish. It is among the major commodities imported by machines, transportation materials, metallurgy products, chemical products.
The country trades with the United States at most. However, Latin American countries are trying to develop trade relations with Japan and European countries.
Chile has an advanced rail and road network and a very advanced airline service. 80% of the railway system is owned by the state. There are also car hire and rent agency services in Chile.